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Benito Mussolini. Fascism: Advocates extreme nationalism and a strong centralized government led by a dictator. Josef Stalin. Communism: Advocates one-party rule and the elimination of private property, and does not tolerate opposition. Hideki Tojo. Militarism:

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Benito Mussolini


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    1. Benito Mussolini • Fascism: • Advocates extreme nationalism and a strong centralized government led by a dictator

    2. Josef Stalin • Communism: • Advocates one-party rule and the elimination of private property, and does not tolerate opposition

    3. Hideki Tojo • Militarism: • Advocates extreme nationalism, values military virtues and ideals, and takes an aggressive military approach to expanding its power Hirohito

    4. Adolf Hitler • Nazism: • Advocates extreme nationalism, control of all industry by the state, the superiority of the Aryan race, and leadership by a dictator

    5. Franklin D. Roosevelt • Democracy: • Government by the people: supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by the people or their elected representatives

    6. Factors Leading to the rise of Dictators • Depression: • The entire worlds economy is bad and dictators promise to provide more jobs for citizens • Treaty of Versailles • Germany forced to take blame, pay reparations ($32 billion), limited armed forces, and lose territory • Same 3 –isms • Nationalism • Imperialism • Backstabberism (secret alliances)

    7. Welcome to School

    8. Organization - The Hitler Youth catered for 10 to 18 year olds. - There were separate organizations for boys and girls. The task of the boys section was to prepare the boys for military service. For girls, the organization prepared them for motherhood.

    9. Your leaders The Fuhrer Adolf Hitler Balder Von Shirach

    10. Young Men - Boys at 10, joined the Deutsches Jungvolk (German Young People) until the age of 13 - At 13 they transferred to the Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) until the age of 18. - "military athletics" (Wehrsport) included marching, bayonet drill, grenade throwing, trench digging, map reading, gas defense, use of dugouts, how to get under barbed wire and pistol shooting.

    11. School Subjects History = German/Hitlers life and struggle Biology = Racial differences/breeding Geography = land we wanted or had once had Anti-Jewish lessons Physical Education = combat training

    12. Girls - At the age of 10, joined the Jungmadelbund (League of Young Girls) At the age of 14 transferred to the Bund Deutscher Madel (League of German Girls). Girls had to be able to run 60 meters in 14 seconds, throw a ball 12 meters, complete a 2 hour march, swim 100 meters and know how to make a bed.

    13. Home Science and Eugenics - How to keep a good house - How to find a "pure man"

    14. Sample Questions "A bomber aircraft on take-off carries 12 dozen bombs, each weighing 10 kilos. The aircraft takes off for Warsaw the international center for Jewry. It bombs the town. On take-off with all bombs on board and a fuel tank containing 100 kilos of fuel, the aircraft weighed about 8 tons. When it returns from the crusade, there are still 230 kilos left. What is the weight of the aircraft when empty ?" "To keep a mentally ill person costs approximately 4 marks a day. There are 300,000 mentally ill people in care. How much do these people cost to keep in total? How many marriage loans of 1000 marks could be granted with this money?"

    15. Hitler’s Rise to Power • Worked to get Nazi party leaders elected • 1933-Appointed Chancellor • 1934 -Became President • Convinced other parties to make him dictator (Fuhrer) • Rebuilds Military • Anticommunist • Fought in WWI for Germany • Went to jail • Wrote Mein Kampf • Called for unification of Germans • Aryan Race=Master Race • Slavic = Slaves • Hated Jews

    16. Hitler’s Plan • Take over all of Europe • Blitzkrieg- “Lightening war” • Use a large number of tanks to break through • Rapidly encircle enemy positions • Promote Germany and the Aryan Race • Unify all of the pure race • Rid Europe of Jews • Eventually he wanted to take over the world

    17. Invasion of France • Maginot Line: line of concrete bunkers built after WWI between France and Germany • Waited to be attacked • Germany conquers Norway and Denmark

    18. Invasion of France (continued) • Germany must go through Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg • French/British go to Belgium • Hitler comes through Ardennes Mountains • Traps French/British in Belgium • Dunkirk • Last port not controlled by Germans

    19. Invasion of France (continued) • Hitler orders troops to stop advancing • Gives French/British 3 days to evacuate • 338,000 troops make it to Britain • Forced to leave all supplies behind in Belgium • June 22, 1940 - France surrenders to Germany

    20. Battle of Britain • June 1940 – Fall 1940 • German Luftwaffe vs British Royal Air Force • August 23, 1940 • Germany accidently bombs London • Britain bombs Berlin • Hitler targets London (civilians) • British have Radar • October 12, 1940 – Hitler calls off invasion

    21. The Holocaust • Genocide: • the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group. • Holocaust: • Extermination of unwanted from European society • 11 million total • 6 million Jews • Shoah – Hebrew term for the Holocaust (Jews)

    22. Nuremberg Laws • September 1935 • Took away German Jews citizenship • Banned marriage betweens Jews and Germans • November 1935 • Jews= 1 Jewish grandparent • Cannot serve in public office or vote • Passports marked with large red J • Summer 1936 • ½ Jews Jobless • Jobs Banned: civil servants, journalists, farmers, teachers, and actors • 1938 – Lawyers, Doctors, Business Owners Banned

    23. Kristallnacht • “Night of broken glass” • November 9, 1938 • Anti-Jewish crime spree ordered by Hitler • 90 Jews killed • Hundreds injured • Thousands terrorized • 7,500 Jewish businesses destroyed • 180 synagogues wrecked • Jewish community forced to pay for damages

    24. Undesirables • Anyone not of the pure master race (Aryan) • Jews • Communists • Gypsies (Roma) – Nomadic people (no country) • Poles and Slavic people • Christians • Homosexuals • Why couldn’t they flee? • Immigration quotas • Forced to leave all wealth in Germany

    25. SS. St. Louis • 930 Jewish refugees sail to Cuba in 1939 • Cuba refuses the ship, America refuses the ship, ship goes back to Europe • France, Holland, Belgium, and Britain

    26. Final Solution • Extermination of all Jews • Systematic murder • Wannsee Conference • January 20, 1942 • 15 Nazi leaders meet to decide how to handle the “Jewish Situation”

    27. Ghetto • Sections of cities that would be designated for Jews to live in. • Jews forced to live here • overpopulated

    28. Concentration Camps • Dachau – 1933 • Buchenwald – 1937 – Weimar Germany • Detention centers – worked until they die from exhaustion, disease, or malnutrition

    29. Extermination Camp • Auschwitz – Estimated 1,600,000 (1,3000,000 Jews) • Camps designed purely for the execution

    30. Nazi Killing Methods • Gas Chambers • Gas vans • Killing squads • Starvation • Exhaustion • Disease • Experiments • Ghettoization • Over 800,000 • Camps • 3,000,000 • Death camps = 2,700,000 • Open-Air Shootings • Over 1,300,000

    31. America Stays Neutral • Nye Committee • Documented huge profits arms companies made off of WWI • Increased desire to be isolationists • Neutrality Act of 1935 • Illegal to sell arms to any country at war • Spanish Civil War • Cash and Carry policy • Pay for items in cash, pick them up on your own ship

    32. America Stays Neutral (Continued) • Destroyers-for-Bases Deal • 1940 – Britain wanted American Destroyers to protect cargo ships from u-boats • 50 Destroyers – Bases on Newfoundland, Bermuda, and Islands in the Caribbean • Lend-Lease Act • Could giver arms to any country considered “vital to the defense of the US” • Country had to promise to return the arms or pay rent for them

    33. America Stays Neutral (Continued) • Hemispheric Defense Zone • Roosevelt declares western half of the Atlantic Ocean neutral • US Navy patrols waters and sends location of U-boats to Britain • Atlantic Charter • Churchill and Roosevelt • Postwar world of democracy, non-aggression, free trade, economic advancement, and freedom at sea • German U-boats fire on US destroyers • 115 American sailors killed

    34. Pearl Harbor • Why was Pearl Harbor attacked? • Export Control Act (July 1940) • Block sale of airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan • 1941 – Us Lend-Lease arms to China • Freeze Japanese assets in America • Cut back how much oil we sell Japan • Send MacArthur to the Philippines (build forces)

    35. Pearl Harbor • November 26th 1941 • 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 24 supporting ships set sail for Pearl Harbor • Strike on US Soil • Deliver a Knock out Blow to the US • “I will show you an uninterrupted succession of victories, but if the war is prolonged 2 or 3 years I have no confidence in an ultimate victory” Yamamoto Plan

    36. Pearl Harbor • Sinks 21 ships • 8 battleships • 3 cruisers • 4 destroyers • 6 other ships • Destroys 188 Airplanes • Killed 2,403 • Injured 1,178 Effect of the Attack

    37. America Prepares for War • Converting Industries • Tanks replace cars • Henry ford creates assembly line to build B-24 bombers • Liberty ships • All factories start making war materials

    38. America Prepares for War • Victory Bonds • Lend money to government, it gets paid back at a latter date • E-bonds • $18.75-$25 (10 years) • Individuals $50 billion • Financial institutions $100 billion

    39. America Prepares for War • Rationing • Limiting availability of product to make sure there is enough to go around • Victory Gardens • Planting gardens to produce more food during war time

    40. Defeating the Nazi’s Pinch Method: surround Hitler and close in on him from all sides ~Russia from East ~America from South ~Britain/France from West

    41. North African Campaign • Soft Underbelly • Italy • Go through North Africa • Gives soldiers experience • September 8, 1943 • Italy's king surrenders • Germans regain control • Fighting continues until May 2, 1945

    42. Russia in the East • As the Allies are attacking from the South and West Russia Attacks from the East • May 1942 – Stalingrad • Hitler orders men to take control of the city to cut off Russian Supplies • Results in 250,000 German troops being captured • Turning point in the war

    43. Planning D-DAY • Eisenhower heads mission • Use decoys to trick Germany • Attack planned for Normandy • Complications in planning: • Ships had to travel at night • Arrive at low tide • Paratroopers needed moonlit night • Needed good weather

    44. D-DAY • June 6, 1944 • Step 1: airborne attack to cause miscommunication • Step 2: beach invasion • 150,000+ men • 5,300 ships • 9,000 allied troops killed • 100,000 allied troops made it ashore • Mission was successful • Germany fighting 2 front war The Attack Outcomes of D-day

    45. Battle of the Bulge • Allies bombed Germans and Patton broke though to the city (December 27th) • January 8th – Germans withdraw • 100,000+ casualties • Loss of tanks/aircrafts • Germany wanted to cut off Allied supplies coming through Belgium • Germany needed to capture Bastogne but allies got there first • Germany surrounds city

    46. V-E Day May 8, 1945 • By March 1945 – American troops fought their way to the Rhine river • March 7 – Allies captured Remagen • Germans did not destroy Ludendorf bridge • April 16 – Soviet troops broke through German defenses at Oder River • Germany agrees to unconditional surrender May 7, 1945

    47. Reasons Allies were Victorious in Europe 3. Russian Winter • Pushed army to fight Russia • Not prepared for harsh winter 4. Detroit • Industrial strength • Produce 1,000 bullets for every 1 bullet shot by Germany 1. Deception • Spies-misinformation • Normandy decoy 2. Hitler’s Mistakes • Overruns generals • Lack of supplies • Focuses too much on Russia

    48. Fighting in the Pacific • Bushido • Japanese fighting code of honor and no surrender • Why was fighting the Japanese different? • Race • Germans seen as good Soldiers • Japanese seen as inhumane • Fighting Technique • Willing to kill themselves in battle to win

    49. Island Hopping • To take down Japan the US needed to get close to the Japanese mainland • Had to hop from island to island capturing land and getting closer