Benito Mussolini and Fascism in Italy. Fascism in Italy Reading Guide. Totalitarianism Notes. Totalitarianism Study Guide. Project #6. Italian Dissatisfaction. In 1919, Italian nationalists were outraged by the Paris peace treaties.
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Benito Mussolini and Fascism in Italy Fascism in Italy Reading Guide Totalitarianism Notes Totalitarianism Study Guide Project #6
Italian Dissatisfaction • In 1919, Italian nationalists were outraged by the Paris peace treaties.
Italy soon faced problems at home as peasants, factory workers and veterans became discontent.
Rise of Mussolini • A fiery speaker, Benito Mussolini promised to end corruption and replace turmoil with order. • Benito Mussolini would build the first totalitarian state, which would become a model for others.
Fascism • Mussolini created the “Fascist” party. • The Fascists were extreme nationalists who promised to turn the Mediterranean Sea into a “Roman lake” once again.
Using intimidation and terror, Fascist gangs ousted elected officials in northern Italy. • Having lost faith in the constitutional government, many Italians accepted these moves.
In 1922, the Fascists announced a “March on Rome” to demand that the government make changes. • Fearing a civil war, the king asked Mussolini to form a government as prime minister.
The Reign of Mussolini • By 1925, Mussolini had taken the title Il Duce, which means the leader. • He suppressed rival parties, muzzled the press, rigged elections and replaced elected officials with Fascist supporters.
Fascist Expectation for Men • To Fascists, the individual was unimportant. • Men were urged to be ruthless, selfless warriors for the glory of Italy.
Fascist Expectations for Women • Women were asked to “win the battle for motherhood” and pushed out of paying jobs. • If a women gave birth to over 14 children, she was personally presented a medal by Mussolini.
Fascist Expectations for Youth • Youth were taught strict military discipline • Youth learned about the glories of ancient Rome • Youth chanted “Mussolini is always right”.
Basic Features of Fascism • Fascism gloried loyalty to the state, violence and discipline. • Fascism rejected democracy. • Fascism pursued foreign expansion and glorified warfare.
Fascism Appeals to Italians • Although Fascism severely restricted individual freedoms, it appealed to many Italians.
Fascism Appeals to Italians • First, it promised a strong, stable government.
Fascism Appeals to Italians • Second, Mussolini’s intense nationalism revived national pride.
Fascism Appeals to Italians • Third, Mussolini projected a sense of power and confidence at a time of disorder and despair.
Views of Fascism throughout Europe • Benito Mussolini received positive press throughout Europe until he embarked on a course of foreign conquest and joined forces with Adolf Hitler.
Conquest of Ethiopia • Italy invaded Ethiopia, a country they were unable to conquer during the Scramble for Africa. • This marked the beginning of foreign aggression by Mussolini and the Fascists.
Mussolini authorized the use of poisonous gas and mass executions. • After the Red Cross brought these actions to the attention of the world, Mussolini reacted by “accidentally” bombing Red Cross tents.
Popular throughout much of Europe prior to these actions, Mussolini was now seen as an aggressor. • After the League of Nations placed sanctions on Italy, Mussolini decided to join forces with Adolf Hitler.
Weimar Republic • As World War I came to an end Germany narrowly escaped total collapse. • In 1919, German leaders created a democratic government known as the Weimar Republic.
The Weimar Republic faced several challenges. • Germany set up a parliamentary system, consisting of several small parties which struggled to form a majority.
The Weimar Republic was blamed for signing the hated Versailles Treaty. • War Guilt Clause • Heavy Reparations • Disarmament
Economic Crisis • Germany also faced severe economic problems. • The government responded by printing more money.
As a result inflation spiraled out of control and the German mark became nearly worthless. • An item that lost 100 marks in July 1922 cost 944,000 marks by August 1923. • Salaries rose by billions of marks.
Beer Hall Putsch • The Weimar Republic faced constant threats of revolution. • The most famous attempt was Beer Hall Putsch led by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
The attempt failed and Hitler was sent to jail where he wrote Mein Kampf, or “My Struggle”. • Mein Kampf—Outlined Hitler’s principles of extreme nationalism, racism and anti-Semitism.
After serving less than a year, Adolf Hitler used the Great Depression to revive interest in the Nazi Party. • The Nazi Party promised to end reparations, create jobs and rebuild the German military.
Adolf Hitler • Fearing the rise of communism, conservative leaders elected Hitler chancellor in 1933. • Hitler quickly establish a totalitarian state, suspended civil rights, unleashed a wave of terror, eliminated the Communists and all other political parties.
Those viewed as disloyal to Hitler were executed by the Gestapo, including members of the Nazi Party. • Gestapo—Adolf Hitler’s secret police
Hitler employed thousands of employers public works programs. • The economy received another boost when Germany began a military rearmament program.
As employment rates rose and the revival of German power, Germans ignored the terror apparatus taking shape.
Campaign against the Jews • Hitler set out to drive Jews from Germany. • In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws placed severe restrictions on Jews.
On Kristallnacht, or “Night of Broken Glass”, many Jews were dragged from their homes and beaten in the streets.
Concentration camps—Detention centers where Jews were sent and suffered from starvation, forced labor, vile acts, and murder. • Final Solution—Plan of Adolf Hitler’s calling for the extermination of all Jews.