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Nationalism. Building a German Nation. Identify several events that promoted German unity during the early 1800s. Explain how Bismarck unified Germany. Analyze the basic political organization of the new German empire. Chapter 22 Section 1. Terms and People.

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building a german nation

Nationalism

Building a German Nation

  • Identify several events that promoted German unity during the early 1800s.
  • Explain how Bismarck unified Germany.
  • Analyze the basic political organization of the new German empire.

Chapter 22 Section 1

slide2

Terms and People

  • Otto von Bismarck – a leader from Prussia who succeeding in unifying German-speaking states under Prussian rule
  • chancellor – the highest official of a monarch
  • Realpolitik – realistic politics based on the needs of the state
  • annex– to take control of, usually referring to land
  • kaiser– emperor
  • Reich– German empire
slide3

How did Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Prussia, lead the drive for German unity?

German-speaking people lived in several small states in the early 1800s.

This changed when Otto von Bismarck became chancellor in Prussia and decided to build a unified German state.

slide4

He dissolved the Holy Roman Empire.

  • He organized several German states into the Rhine Confederation.
  • He made trade easier in the region.

Napoleon’s invasions into German-speaking states produced changes in these territories.

German-speaking people fought together to free themselves from French rule and began to consider creating a united German state.

slide5

Creating a united Germany was difficult.

  • It required dissolving the small governments of each German state.
  • Instead, leaders created a weak alliance called the German Confederation.
  • Prussia created an economic union in the 1830s called the Zollverein, but Germany remained fragmented politically.
slide6

This changed when Otto von Bismarck rose to power in Prussia.

He became prime minister in 1862, then rose tochancellor.

Bismarck was determined to unite Germany under Prussian rule and used a policy of “blood and iron” to do so.

slide7

Realpolitik was an ideology that favored power over principle.

  • He then led Prussia into three wars.
  • These actions all paved the way for German unification.

Bismarck mastered Realpolitik and strengthened the Prussian army.

slide8

Next, he attacked Austria and annexed several states.

He dissolved the German Confederation and replaced it with one led by Prussia.

Otto von Bismarck took methodical steps to increase Prussia’s power and territory.

He formed an alliance with Austria, then seized provinces from Denmark.

slide10

The Franco-Prussian War broke out in 1870.

After a furious Napoleon III declared war, Prussia and other German states easily defeated the French within weeks.

Bismarck stoked the rivalry between the two states by editing a telegram to make it appear that King William I of Prussia had insulted a French ambassador.

slide11

Leaders in many German states urged William I of Prussia to take the title kaiser.

  • German nationalists celebrated the beginning of the second Reich, the second German empire after the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Bismarck wrote a constitutionand set up a two-house legislature. However, real power remained with the emperor and chancellor.
slide12

Otto von Bismarck . . . .

The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they’ll sleep at night.

Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied.

The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions—that was the mistake of 1848-1849—but by blood and iron.

slide13

Otto von Bismarck . . . .

I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made.

A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one.

Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans will provoke the next war.