Diabetes Mellitus The name “diabetes mellitus means sweet urine. It stems from ancient times when physicians would taste a patients urine as a part of a diagnosis.
Current Population Trend Diabetes is the growing heath problem in the United States and has risen about six fold since 1950. Its now affecting about 17 million Americans and one third of those Americans (5.9 million) don’t even now they have the disease. Today, not only are adults being diagnosed with this disease, but its also affecting today’s youth.
What’s Occuring in the body? Our body uses a hormone called insulin to handle glucose, which is a simple sugar that’s a main source of energy. In diabetes, something goes wrong in the body so that you can not produce insulin or are not sensitive to it. That means that your body produces high levels of blood glucose, which acts on organs to produce the symptoms of the disease.
Development of Type 2 • Glucose is a simple sugar that provides energy to all cells in the body • The cells take in glucose from the blood and break it down for energy, most of this is used for fuel. • Glucose come from the food you eat
Development of Type 2 • Glucose gets absorbed from the intestines and distributed by the bloodstream to all cells. • The body tries to maintain a constant glucose concentration in the blood. • So, when you over supply on glucose, your body stores the excess in the liver and muscles by making glycogen • When glucose is in short supply, the body makes glucose from stored glycogen or from the food that’s been eaten.
To maintain a constant blood glucose level, the body relies on two hormones produced in the pancreas that have opposite actions: insulin and glucagon.
Facts on Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is a disease that generally develops over a period of years. People who will eventually develop this disease are insulin resistant several years before their blood sugars become abnormal. Their bodies try to make up for the higher insulin needs created by insulin resistance by producing more insulin.
Facts on Type 2 • But in Type 2 diabetes, the body ends up producing abnormally high levels of insulin over the years eventually begins to have a negative effect. • The pancreas gradually begins to lose its ability to produce the extra insulin needed to overcome insulin resistance. As body insulin levels fall, blood sugars begin to rise.
Type 2 diabetes and the insulin resistance that causes it have a strong genetic basis and are made worse by environmental factors, including inactivity, weight gain, and stress. • Most people are overweight at the time their Type 2 diabetes is discovered. Being more active or losing weight may help prevent or delay the development of diabetes. • Type 2 diabetes was once called "Adult-onset Diabetes" but this term is no longer used because it is inaccurate. Type 2 diabetes is on the increase in all age groups, even among children of high school and grade school age.
Who gets Type 2 Diabetes? Most people are lead to believe that they’re to blame for the disease. However, this disease can also be inherited by genes as well. Not everyone that eats a lot of sugar and is overweight have the disease. But there are higher risks for people developing type 2 diabetes. Here are some facts on how it is people obtain this disease:
People who are overweight Have a parent or sibling with diabetes Are 40 years of age Have high blood pressure Are African America, Latino, or Native American Had diabetes during pregnancy Have the stress of an illness or injury Had a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds at birth.
Symptoms of Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is often without symptoms in its early stages. That’s the reason there are 40% of people with Type 2 diabetes are unaware of their disease. When there are symptoms, they may occur gradually. If present, they usually are: • feeling tired and weak • passing large volumes of urine, especially during the night • having frequent infections • having blurred eyesight • Weight-loss • Excessive hunger and thirst
RISK FACTORS! If left untreated this, Diabetes can cause many life threatening complications: • Blindness • Chronic Renal Failure= kidney failure • Atherosclerosis= heart attacks and stroke • Diabetic Neuropathy= numbness and pain to hands and feet • Foot Ulcers • Autonomic Neuropathy= diarrhea, rapid heart beat, and low blood pressure
Risk Factors! • Coma or death may occur as a result in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (caused by infection) • People who smoke are a much higher risk at heart attacks, stroke, infections, and problems with poor circulation
Treatment for Type 2 Because there are several defects in the body's chemistry that develop as Type 2 diabetes changes over time, there are many tools used to treat it. In its earliest stages, Type 2 diabetes can often be controlled effectively by becoming more active and by managing food to reduce the body's need for insulin. This may involve promoting a modest amount of weight loss, controlling and distributing carbohydrate intake through the day, or both.
Treatment for Type 2 When the disease has progressed to the point where blood sugars are not controlled by activity and food management alone, several types of oral medications (pills) and/or insulin may be used singly or in combination to regain blood glucose control. Their effectiveness is judged by testing the blood sugar periodically throughout the day.
How to take care of yourself • Once you’ve been diagnosed with Type 2, there are many changes and things you have to do in order to keep your blood sugar level steady and healthy. Those ways are meal planning, weight loss, and exercise.
Meal Planning With type 2 Diabetes you have to eat healthy in order to keep your sugar levels well maintained. That means: • Fruits and vegetables (apples, bananas, broccoli, spinach, etc.) • Whole grain, cereals ,and bread. (Wheat, barley, rice and bran.) • Dairy products (yogurt, skim milk, cream) • Meat: fish, poultry, eggs, dried beans
Weight-loss • Obesity increases insulin resistance and can lead to many other cardiovascular health problems. • However the diabetic that carries the disease and loses weight, will see a decrease in blood glucose levels and a decrease in taking oral medication
Exercise • Exercise can take glucose out of the blood and for energy during or after exercise, which lowers the glucose level. • Helps delay large blood vessel clots, which lead to Cardiovascular heart Disease • All people with diabetes should exercise to control their blood sugar level, to maintain
Prevention??? Researchers attribute obesity to Type 2 Diabetes • Maintain a healthy body weight • Eat a healthy diet (fruits, vegetables, bread, milk) • Exercise at least 30 minutes for 4-5 days a week. (swimming, walking, basketball, running)