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Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

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Type 2 diabetes

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  1. Type 2 diabetes By: Candice Carlson November 21, 2011

  2. Why talk about diabetes? • More common. • Nutrition related. • High interest. • Family.

  3. Overview • What is Type 2 Diabetes? • History • Causes • Facts about Type 2 Diabetes. • Signs/symptoms • Process • Diagnostic criteria • Management • Nutrition • Conclusion

  4. What is Type 2 Diabetes? • Diabetes is the impairment of the body to make food into energy. • More frequent in older adults. • 90 to 95 % of cases are type 2, most common form. • After eating, the body breaks food into glucose (sugar). • Glucose is a fuel source for cells. • In diabetes, the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or cells don’t respond to insulin correctly. • Insulin is a hormone that adjusts glucose levels in blood. • Result in high blood glucose levels.

  5. History • Diabetes has been recognized for thousands of years. • Noted as “Sugar Urine Disease.” • Medhumeha was discovered by an Indian physician and said that exercise could cure it. • Manuscript noted “passing of too much urine.” • The description and name of diabetes was from a Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia. • Hippocrates never mentioned it. • Thought it may have been incurable, “death sentence.” • Aretaeus tried to treat diabetes. • Noted that life would be short, painful, and disgusting with diabetes. • No treatment of type 2 diabetes historically.

  6. History • The different types of diabetes were discovered in the twentieth century. • 1921 – Insulin was discovered. • 1935 – Roger Hinsworth discovered the types of diabetes. • Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes • Type 2 diabetes is known as the non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus. • Adult-onset diabetes • Maturity-onset diabetes • Most often in middle aged adults but a rising amount of children are being diagnosed.

  7. Facts • In the United States, Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death. • 25.8 million people are affected. • 8.3 % of the U.S. Population • Diagnosed – 18.8 million. • Undiagnosed – 7.0 million.

  8. United States Diabetes Facts • 26.9 % of older adults (65 years and older) had diabetes in 2010. • 215,000 people 20 years and younger had diabetes in 2010. • Type 1 and Type 2 in 2010. • In 2005-2008, 35% of adults aged 20 and older had pre-diabetes. • 50% of older adults had pre-diabetes. • In total 79 million American adults!! • Causes stroke and heart disease. • Primary cause of kidney failure and blindness (new cases).

  9. 2010 United States

  10. Etiology • Type 2 diabetics do secrete insulin, unlike type 1 diabetics. • Small amounts. • Main Problem in Type 2 Diabetes • Insulin receptors are insensitive to the hormone. • Insulin Resistance • The little amount of insulin secreted does not bind to the cell receptors as it should. • Many people may have diabetes for years before they become diagnosed (asymptomatic).

  11. Risks • Highest Risk: Alaska Native, Pacific Islander, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, African American. • Inactive • Overweight • Family history – Parent, brother, sister with diabetes. • Age – 40 years or older.

  12. Risks • History of cardiovascular disease. • Had gestational diabetes or had a child weighing more than 9 pounds. • HDL cholesterol is less than 35 mg/dL • Triglyceride level is greater than 250 mg/dL. • High blood pressure – greater than 140/90 mm Hg. • Children are at a greater risk if their mother has type 2 diabetes.

  13. Symptoms • Many people do not know they have diabetes. • May be no symptoms. • Very mild. • Symptoms may include: • Fatigue • Blurred vision • Weight loss • Polydipsia • Polyphagia • Polyuria • Sores don’t heal.

  14. Complications