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Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

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Type 2 Diabetes

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  1. Type 2 Diabetes Max Kraynak, Jaewon Park

  2. General info • Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes • Older people are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes 1 • It develops when the body doesn’t produce enough insulinor the body ignores it because it has extra body fat 1 • When the body ignores insulin you are more susceptible to get diabetes 1 • Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps your body convert food to energy

  3. General Info cont. • Type 2 diabetes affects about 90% of americans with diabetes(Type 2 Diabetes Overview) 5 • High blood sugar levels can lead to damage in the kidney, heart, and eyes 5 • It can also cause dehydration 5

  4. Causes • Protein misfolding contributes to causing type 2 diabetes 4 • This damages the outer membrane of pancreatic cells that can stop or slow insulin production 4 • A bad diet or lack of exercise can lead to obesity or an insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels 4

  5. Causes (Beta Cells) • Beta cells can be found in the pancreas and they produce insulin 6 • In type 2 diabetes, the beta cells don’t produce enough insulin for the body 6 • This is because the beta cells start dying due to an increase in beta cell apoptosis 6 • Apoptosis is programmed cell death 6

  6. Causes Cont. • One gene has been recently discovered to have something to do with diabetes • The gene is a zinc transporter called SLC30A8 which also helps regulate insulin secretion 2 • Scientist believe it can explain up to 70% of type 2 diabetes genetic backround2 • Scientist think that they may be able to fix this gene which could cure the disease

  7. Causes Cont. • Diabetes is a disease that can be passed down through a family • This means that if a family member has diabetes a sibling or descendant has a better chance of getting it • This is because mutations in genes can passed from parents to their children

  8. Chromosomes • One chromosome scientists think could have a connection to type 2 diabetes is chromosome 20 7 • Right now though, there is no conclusive evidence to prove that it has a serious connection to type 2 diabetes 7

  9. Gene Therapy • Currently there are no known cures for type 2 diabetes in humans • Scientist have been testing many different animals like mice to try to find a cure 3 • An appetite hormone leptin has been proven to reverse type 2 in mice by controlling the bodies isulin output 3

  10. Resources • 1. Type 2, retrieved April 9, 2013, American Diabetes Association, retrieved from,http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/type-2/ • 2.Scientists find gene causing type 2 diabetes, retrieved April 9, 2013, The Guardian, retrieved from,http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2007/feb/12/medicineandhealth.genetics • 3. Gene Therapy Reverses Type 2 Diabetes in Mice, retrieved April 9, 2013, Science Daily, retrieved from,http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/09/060920191021.htm

  11. Resources cont. • 4.Role of Protein Misfolding and Aggregation in Diabetes, retrieved April 9, 2013, retrieved from,http://www.nasw.org/users/mslong/2009/2009_05/DiabetesProtein.htm • 5. Type 2 Diabetes overview, retrieved April 9, 2013, Web MD, retrieved from,http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/type-2-diabetes • 6. CJ Rhodes, Type 2 Diabetes- A Matter of Beta Cell Life or Death?, Retrieved April 9, 013, Pub Med, retrieved from, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15662003 • 7. Marshall Permutt, Searching For Type 2 Diabetes Genes on Chromosome 20, retrieved on April 9, 2013, American Diabetes Association, retrieved from, http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/suppl_3/S308.full