Freaky Freud! Ms Rebecca Psychology
Review • 1. What is personality? • 2. What are traits? • 3. Is my perception of my personality different from others’? • 4. Are personality tests ONLY measuring BAD traits? • 5. According to the MMPI-2, what levels of the 5 traits do I have?
By the end of today….. • 1. Who is Freud and where does personality come from acc to the Psychoanalytic perspective? • 2. What are the id, ego, and superego? • 3. What are the 5 stages of development according to Freud and what happens during each stage? • 4. When does “development" of personality end?
I. Psychoanalysis • Sigmund Freud http://yourblues.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/sigmund_freud-loc.jpg
What IS the Psychoanalytic Theory? • Says we are influenced by forces beneath our conscious: (in our unconscious)
Beneath the surface! • Believed many of peoples’ deepest thoughts, fears and urges remain out of awareness in an unconscious part of the mind. http://www.texaspos.com/images/iceburg.jpg
A. How do you explore the unconscious part of the mind? • Psychoanalysis: People are supposed to talk about anything that they think of so psychologists can analyze the deeper meaning. http://bp0.blogger.com/_N_CQPl_1K5U/R72JrKVJijI/AAAAAAAAAAk/-UNtGdaC9x0/s400/My_Cartoon_1_(Best)+001.jpg
a. Patients in a relaxed setting • Like a couch! http://www.freud.org.uk/Marge.jpg
2. Dream analysis • Freud believed that people’s unconscious wishes may also appear in their dreams http://www.cartoonstock.com/lowres/mba0407l.jpg
So • Freud asked people to write their dreams down when they woke up and then he tried to figure out the hidden meaning http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/mba/lowres/mban1343l.jpg
3. Hypnosis • Was another method Freud used to try to get to peoples’ unconscious thoughts. • Later abandoned http://images.google.co.th/imgres?imgurl=http://www.seductionlabs.org/images/Hypnosis-fate.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.seductionlabs.org/2008/06/06/covert-hypnosis/&h=344&w=403&sz=16&hl=en&start=4&sig2=ewvShhkWTgyxg8lasaprjg&um=1&usg=__ikPwWYdRoim-i9EW9iD2dmA-8rI=&tbnid=BuZqEB3pA4VzmM:&tbnh=106&tbnw=124&ei=Zq_QSOmmH4qM6gO6s_3IDw&prev=/images%3Fq%3DHypnosis%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den
II. 3 Basic Psychological Structures • ID • EGO • SUPEREGO http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/learning_modules/psychology/02.TU.04/illustrations/02.IL.17.gif
A. ID • Basic drives like hunger are part of the ID. • 1-present at birth • 2-stereotypical 2 year old: “I want what I want, when I want it” • 3-pays no attention to laws, customs, or the needs of others
B. EGO • 1. Develops because a child’s demands for instant gratification cannot be met • We can’t always get what we want http://bp0.blogger.com/_IpeMzQ8Vv2Y/SAuP3ena4jI/AAAAAAAABT0/2rq3Tmebbiw/s400/rolling+stones.den.13404.jpg
Goal of the EGO • 2. Satisfy the desires of the ID in a Realistic way. Example: Your ID says you are hungry and your EGO says you should cook a hamburger instead of eating it raw. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/128/419717099_9797a56591.jpg?v=0
The Ego • 3. Also provides a sense of self or a sense of what you should do to make yourself happy like study for a test. • 4. AND the EGO is a censor that screens out the wild impulses of the ID
C. Superego • 1-Develops throughout early childhood • 2-Goal: moral principle: standards and values of parents and other members of the community give us our moral sense.
3. The conscience • The superego floods the ego with feelings of guilt or shame when we do something society defines as wrong.
Who has the toughest job? • The EGO! • Why? The Ego has to juggle the needs of the ID AND the SUPEREGO!
Example: • ID: “You want to go out with your friends! Don’t study!” • SUPEREGO: “You must study all night or you won’t pass the test!” • EGO: Balance! “Study now and after you do well on your test you can spend time with friends”
Psychosexual Stages of Development • Freud believed that a person’s personality developed through a series of 5 stages.
Why are the stages important? • ADULT psychological problems might come from unresolved childhood conflicts. • If you don’t resolve conflicts during your early life, you may become stuck in some of the traits of your childhood.
1. Oral Stage: http://www.worldofstock.com/slides/PCH8851.jpg
About the Oral Stage • When: First year of life • What is it?: Infants explore their mouths and put things into their mouths to learn about them. Main source of pleasure: food • Children depend on adults to feed them at this stage
What if there are problems in a child’s Oral stage? • According to Freud, If a child’s needs aren’t met during the oral stage they may get stuck in the oral stage later in life. • How? Continue to focus on pleasures of the mouth: Smoke, overeat, talk a lot, nail biting. ALSO might have clinging relationships as an adult.
About the Anal Stage • When: ages of 1 &1/2 – 2 &1/2 • What happens?: Children learn they can control bodily functions (when they poo poo and pee pee) • CONTROL becomes very important
What if there are problems during a child’s Anal stage? • Control issues! • People can become: 1. Anal retentive: they need to control everything. Ex: Perfectionist • Or people become 2. Anal Expulsive: careless and messy
3. Phallic Stage http://www.cartoonstock.com/lowres/rje0278l.jpg
About the phallic stage • When: Age 3 • What happens: boys and girls notice they are different from each other. They may develop STRONG attachments to the parent of the opposite sex.
Oedipus Complex • When a son has sexual desire for his mother. • *Many people don’t think this exists!
Electra Complex • When a daughter has a sexual desire for her father. • *Many people don’t think this exists! http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/97/Electra_and_Orestes_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_14994.png/300px-Electra_and_Orestes_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_14994.png
What if there are problems during the Phallic Stage? • Freud suggested that problems during this stage can lead to: • Depression • Excessive guilt • Anxiety
4. Latency Stage http://practicalramblings.files.wordpress.com/2008/02/hide_and_seek1.jpg
About the Latency Stage • When: Age 5-just before puberty • What: Latent = hidden • Impulses and emotions remain hidden or unconscious
5. The Genital Stage http://www.offthemarkcartoons.com/cartoons/2002-04-21.gif
About the Genital Stage • When: Puberty • What: Kids become aware of their gender identity. Conflicts of early development stages resurface.
Review: Answer the following questions: What are 2 main ideas about where personality comes from according to the Psychoanalytic Theory? Who is Freud and what does he say are the 3 parts of personality? What does each part do?
Psychoanalytic theory • Says we are influenced by forces beneath our conscious: (in our unconscious) • We are only able to understand our true feelings when we free associate or dream or are hypnotized…
Stages of Personality • ID= Basic urges • EGO=regulates basic needs and conscience • SUPEREGO=moral sense, what SHOULD I do
Review! • 1. Who is Freud and where does personality come from acc to the Psychoanalytic perspective? • 2. What are the id, ego, and superego? • 3. What are the 5 stages of development according to Freud and what happens during each stage? • 4. When does “development" of personality end?
Now • We are going to learn about another one of Freud’s ideas about personality: Defense Mechanisms
What you should learn: • 1. Why do people use defense mechanisms? • 2. What are the 8 defense mechanisms and how are they used? • 3. Can you think of an example of a defense mechanism that you use? Explain. • 4. Are any defense mechanisms healthy? Which ones?
Defense Mechanisms • Are the methods the ego uses to avoid facing emotions or ideas that cause pain or stress. (Goal 4 of Psychology!) • Defense Mechanisms, like the id, ego and superego operates beneath our conscious.
What are they? • Repression • Rationalization • Displacement • Regression • Projection • Reaction Formation • Denial • Sublimation
1. Repression • Pushes painful or stressful ideas into the subconscious. • Like a tea-kettle holds in steam, people hold in their urges. http://images.google.co.th/images?gbv=2&hl=en&q=hold+your+breath
Problem with repression • When steam builds up, the tea-kettle pops it’s lid.
When people let their emotions and urges build up inside of them they eventually explode through outbursts of anger and maybe developing other psychological and emotional problems.
2. Rationalization • Distorts unacceptable ideas and behaviors to justify them. Makes excuses to try to make it seem like unacceptable behavior is ok.
Example of Rationalization • A student who cheats on a test may say: • “I only cheated on a few questions, I knew most of the answers!” http://www.borg.com/~rjgtoons/images/ed11.gif