Chapter 4 Ms. Sosa
Lesson 1 12.13.11
Poem • The Nile was unpredictable • So controlling it was vital • Authority was what the rulers gained • When the Nile met people’s aim • When the Nile brought drought or floods • People thought this was caused by gods • The fertile delta of the river • To Egypt strength and wealth delivered
Land of the Nile • The Nile is the world’s largest river; it runs through Egypt. The Nile also runs through the Sahara Desert. In Nubia, it has waterfalls, a.k.a cataracts. • Like many rivers, the Nile river was unpredictable; some times it flooded and some times there were droughts.
Controlling the River • The authority of leaders was based on the ability to control the Nile. Leaders used surpluses to store for later and to feed laborers working on public work projects.
Nile as a Source of Religion • Egyptian leaders could control the Nile, but they could not predict it. The unpredictability of flooding influenced the religious beliefs of Egyptians. • They created stories to help explain the world through gods. • One of the more important gods was Ra, god of sun (Sun “Ray”). Hopi was the god of the Nile.
Toward Civilization • In 3500 B.C.E, temples of worship were along the Nile, as were stone tombs where the dead were buried. Writing was on the tombs. • Egyptians made pottery and tools of copper. The Nile was a highway for trade, so Egyptians learned to build ships very well. The sail was invented 3300 B.C.E, which made boats go faster.
Lesson 2 12.16.11
Poem • In the Old Kingdom of Egypt, Kings ruled the land, • Keeping advisers closely at hand • Tall pyramids for the Kings’ mummies were built • Their bodies were dried by using salt • On scrolls of worn papyrus strips, • Their tales were told in hieroglyphs
Egypt Unites • In 3100, King Narmer united upper and lower Egypt and named the capital Memphis. • This began the first dynasty in Egypt • Old Kingdom • Middle Kingdom • New Kingdom • People believed the rulers were never wrong and treated them like gods.
System of Writing • In 3100 B.C hieroglyphics became the system of writing. • Egyptians were of the first to use religious writing on temples and tombs. Hieroglyphics were also used to record trade, ceremonies, taxes and events. • Egyptians invented papyrus (which was easier to store and write on than clay tablets.) • We learned to decipher ( ) hieroglyphics from the Rosetta Stone
Building the pyramids • The OLD Kingdom was the Age of the Pyramids. • Pyramids were tombs for Egyptian leaders (pharaohs) • The great pyramid of Giza was made for King Khufu and was finished in 2566 B.C. • It is 480 feet high and made from 2.3 million stones. Each stone weighted about 2.5 tons!!!
Preparing for the afterlife • Egyptians had a very strong belief in the afterlife, especially (esp.) for the royal family. • They preserved the dead bodies so that the dead could use them in the afterlife. • In 2500 B.C. priests invented the technique of drying bodies with salt solution and wrapping them in bandages. Tombs contained furniture, jewelry, and other items.
Lesson 3 01.04.12
Poem • Egyptians ensured they could profit from trade • Despite robbers and pirates and the problems they made • But instability had already begun • When a people called Hyksos invaded and won • For 100 years the Hyksos remained • Until the Egyptians rose up and seized power again • When the Old Kingdom ended, conditions were poor • With famine, long drought, and a harsh civil war • The Middle Kingdom brought riches and strength • And Egypt finally united again
Reuniting the Kingdom • At the end of the Old Kingdom was civil war, drought and other problems. • In civil war, Egypt was divided. Egypt was reunited in 2040 B.C • The Middle kingdom was a stable time • A vizier named Amenemhet became king during Dynasty 12 • Many structures were built during King Amenemhet, including the legendary labyrinth
Trade • Trade increased in the Middle Kingdom by boat and caravan • Egypt had grains and precious stones but needed building materials. • Problems with • caravans included the slow desert routes, robbers, and sandstorms. • By boat included strong winds, waves and pirates. • Egyptians did cost-benefit analyses of trade to be sure their trading ended in profit
Time of invasion • In Dynasty 13, there were about 60 rulers. • People from the Hyksos culture of Southwest Asia crossed the Sinai Peninsula. • In 1675 B.C., the Hyksos conquered Lower Egypt (north). • Hyksos took control because they had a superior military technology. • Hyksos introduced weaving on uprights looms and new musical instruments. They believed in Egyptian gods and used Hieroglyphs. • After 100 years, the Egyptians rulers won back the power, and drove the Hyksos back into Palestine.
Lesson 4 01.05.12
Poem • Children played games with toys to have fun, • While their parents relaxed in the sun • Though pyramids building stopped because of expense, • The pyramids stood strong throughout the New kingdom and since • Religion and wealth the pharaohs controlled, • Gaining power from Nubian gold • Society leveled from pharaoh to slave • Sons often adopted the family trade
Children… • Paintings show children with parents or playing with toys like balls, dolls and tug-of-war. • At age 12, children entered the adult world and took on adult responsibilities.
Kings of the Great House- Early New Kingdom • The new kingdom began in 1552 B.C.E • Hatshepsut was a female pharaoh who demanded payment from surrounding areas for protection. Later her son, Thutmose III, conquered Nubia, which was full of gold.
Time of Change-Later New Kingdom • In 1364 B.C.E Amenhotep IV became pharaoh. He and his wife Nefertiti changed religion in Egypt from worship of many gods to worship of one god, Aton • When Amenhotep died, the new pharaoh Tutankhamen, continued with the new religion. • Rames II, Rames the Great, ruled for 65 years and made Egypt strong and rich. • Around 1215 B.C.E Egypt weaken and lost land to surrounding regions.
Egyptian Society • There were several levels of social classes • Men generally either held government offices or leaned their father’s trade • Women raised children, ran their household, and could own property and businesses.
Egyptian Art and Architecture • Most ruins found are of stone. However, the main building material was mud brick. • Houses had businesses on the first floor and living areas on the second floor. • Pharaohs stopped building pyramids because they were too expensive. • Egyptians loved music and dancing, and shared popular stories written on scrolls.