Sexually Transmitted Infections and Diseases Information and Issues
STIs: facts and fiction • Myth • Chlamydia is the least common of the STI • Fact • Chlamydia is the most common bacterial STI in humans. • Myth • 1 in 100 adult Americans have an STI. • Fact • 1 in 5 adults in the United States has an STI
STIs: facts and fiction • Myth • HPV is only found in adult male populations. • Fact • HPV infection is found in 30 percent of sexually active adolescent girls and young women.. • Myth • Pubic lice cause no symptoms. • Fact • ____________________________________________________________________________________
STI and STD Definitions • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by infections that are passed from one person to another during sexual contact. • These infections often do not cause any symptoms. Medically, infections are only called diseases when they cause symptoms. That is why STDs are also called “_________________________.“ • But it’s very common for people to use the terms "sexually transmitted diseases" or "STDs," even when there are no signs of disease.
Various STIs • Chancroid • Chlamydia • ________________________ • Genital Warts-Human Papillomavirus (HPV) • Gonorrhea • Hepatitis B • Herpes • HIV & AIDS • Intestinal Parasites • Molluscum Contagiosum • _______________________________ • Pubic Lice (Crabs) • Scabies • Syphilis • Trichomoniasis (Trich)
Chlamydia • Chlamydia (klah MIH dee ah) is an infection caused by a kind of bacteria that is passed during sexual contact. • It is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the United States. • Chlamydia can infect the penis, vagina, cervix, anus, urethra, eye, or throat. • Usually, chlamydia has no symptoms. Most people are not aware that they have the infection — especially women. • ______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Half of men with chlamydia have no chlamydia symptoms.
Chlamydia • If you do get chlamydia symptoms, they may begin in as little as ____________________after you got the infection. • When women have chlamydia symptoms, they may experience • abdominal pain • abnormal vaginal discharge • bleeding between menstrual periods • low-grade fever • painful intercourse • pain or a burning feeling while urinating • swelling inside the vagina or around the anus • the urge to urinate more than usual • vaginal bleeding after intercourse • a yellowish discharge from the cervix that may have a strong smell • When men have symptoms, they may experience • pain or a burning feeling while urinating • __________________________________________ • swollen or tender testicles • swelling around the anus
Chlamydia • Chlamydia is easily treated. Treatment requires antibiotics. One type of chlamydia treatment is taken in one dose. Other kinds of chlamydia treatment must be taken for seven days. • Chlamydia is spread by vaginal and anal intercourse. Rarely, it is spread during oral sex or by touching your eye with your hand. It can also spread from a woman to her fetus during birth. Chlamydia is not passed through casual contact.
Gonorrhea • Gonorrhea (gon-o-RHEE-a) is an infection caused by a kind of bacteria that is passed during sexual contact. It can infect the penis, vagina, cervix, anus, urethra, or throat. Sometimes it is called "the clap" or "the drip." • Gonorrhea can be a serious health risk if it is not treated. It affects about 600,000 women and men in the United States every year. • Gonorrhea is easy to treat. If you have gonorrhea, you will need to take an antibiotic. Health care providers usually prescribe a single dose of an antibiotic. Some gonorrhea infections, however, are resistant to certain types of antibiotics, so you may have to take more than one dose.
Gonorrhea • Often, gonorrhea has no symptoms. Most people are not aware that they have the infection — especially women. • Four out of five women with gonorrhea have no gonorrhea symptoms. • One out of 10 men with gonorrhea has no gonorrhea symptoms. • If you do get gonorrhea symptoms, they may begin in as little as 1–14 days after you got the infection. • When women have symptoms, they commonly experience • abdominal pain • bleeding between menstrual periods • fever • menstrual irregularities • painful intercourse • painful urination • swelling or tenderness of the vulva • the urge to urinate more than usual • throwing up • yellowish or yellow-green vaginal discharge • When men have symptoms, they commonly experience • pus-like discharge from the penis • pain or burning feeling while urinating • more frequent urination than usual
Gonorrhea • Gonorrhea is spread by vaginal and anal intercourse and oral sex. • Gonorrhea can also be passed from a woman to her fetus during birth. It is not passed through casual contact. • Untreated Complications • PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS • ___________________ • ARTHRITIS
Hepatitis B • Hepatitis is an infection of the liver. The group of viruses that infect the liver are called hepatitis viruses. Some types of hepatitis can cause very serious diseases and — in extreme cases — may lead to death. • The type of hepatitis most likely to be sexually transmitted is hepatitis B (HBV). Hepatitis B is spread through semen, vaginal fluids, blood, and urine.
Hepatitis B • Because hepatitis B often has no symptoms, most people are not aware that they have the infection. About 1 out of 2 adults who have it never have hepatitis B symptoms. When hepatitis B symptoms do occur, they usually appear between six weeks and six months after infection. • When hepatitis B symptoms do develop, the ones most likely to happen first include • extreme tiredness • tenderness and pain in the lower abdomen • loss of appetite • nausea, vomiting • pain in the joints • headache • fever • hives • Later hepatitis B symptoms include • more severe abdominal pain • dark urine • pale-colored bowel movements • jaundice — yellowing of the skin and eyes
Hepatitis B • There is no medicine that can cure hepatitis. But in most cases, hepatitis B goes away by itself within 4 to 8 weeks. More than 9 out of 10 adults with HBV recover completely. • However, about 1 out of 20 people who get HBV as adults will be "carriers" and have chronic (long-term) infection with HBV. Nine out of 10 infants who get HBV at birth will have chronic infection unless they receive immediate treatment. Most HBV carriers remain contagious for the rest of their lives. There are about one and a quarter million HBV carriers in the U.S.
Hepatitis B • Hepatitis B is very contagious. It is passed through an exchange of ________________________________________________by • having sexual intercourse without a latex or female condom • having unprotected oral sex • sharing needles to inject drugs • sharing personal hygiene utensils such as toothbrushes and razors • accidental pricks with contaminated needles in the course of health care • HBV can also be passed from mother to infant during birth.
Herpes • Herpes is a very common infection. It is caused by two different but closely related viruses. The viruses are herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Both are easy to catch. They remain in the body for life and can produce symptoms that come and go. • Oral herpes is caused most often by HSV-1. When a herpes infection is on or near the sex organs, it is called genital herpes. Genital herpes is caused most often by HSV-2.
Herpes • The most common herpes symptom is ______________________— usually on the vagina, vulva, cervix, penis, buttocks, or anus. Symptoms may last several weeks and go away. They may return in weeks, months, or years. • The first time that genital herpes symptoms appear is called "first episode" or "initial herpes." The initial herpes symptoms are usually more noticeable than later outbreaks. • Genital herpes symptoms may include • blisters • burning feelings if urine flows over sores • inability to urinate if severe swelling of sores blocks the urethra • itching • open sores • pain in the infected area • During initial herpes, symptoms may also include • swollen, tender glands in the pelvic area, throat, and under the arms • fever • chills • headache • general run-down feelings • achy, flu-like feelings
Herpes • Certain medications can help manage the infection. Using herpes treatments is usually very effective in speeding up the healing of sores and preventing them from returning frequently. • Although herpes treatment is helpful, there is no cure. However, in most cases outbreaks become fewer and weaker over the course of a few years. • Herpes is spread by touching, kissing, and sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. It can be passed from one partner to another and from one part of the body to another. Brief skin-to-skin contact is all that's needed to pass the virus.
HIV-AIDS • HIV causes AIDS. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It breaks down the immune system — our body's protection against disease. HIV causes people to become sick with infections that normally wouldn't affect them. • AIDS is short for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of HIV disease • Some people develop HIV symptoms shortly after being infected. But it usually takes more than 10 years.
HIV-AIDS • AIDS symptoms appear in the most advanced stage of HIV disease. In addition to a badly damaged immune system, a person with AIDS may also have • thrush — a thick, whitish coating of the tongue or mouth that is caused by a yeast infection and sometimes accompanied by a sore throat • severe or recurring vaginal yeast infections • chronic pelvic inflammatory disease • severe and frequent infections • periods of extreme and unexplained tiredness that may be combined with headaches, lightheadedness, and/or dizziness • quick loss of more than 10 pounds of weight that is not due to increased physical exercise or dieting • bruising more easily than normal • long periods of frequent diarrhea • frequent fevers and/or night sweats • swelling or hardening of glands located in the throat, armpit, or groin • periods of persistent, deep, dry coughing • increasing shortness of breath • the appearance of discolored or purplish growths on the skin or inside the mouth • unexplained bleeding from growths on the skin, from the mouth, nose, anus, or vagina, or from any opening in the body • frequent or unusual skin rashes • severe numbness or pain in the hands or feet, the loss of muscle control and reflex, paralysis, or loss of muscular strength • confusion, personality change, or decreased mental abilities
HIV-AIDS • There is currently no cure for HIV/AIDS. But there are treatments for people living with HIV/AIDS. • HIV is transmitted in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common ways HIV is spread are by • having vaginal or anal intercourse without a condom with someone who has HIV/AIDS • sharing needles or syringes with someone who has HIV/AIDS • being deeply punctured with a needle or surgical instrument contaminated with HIV • getting HIV-infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions into open wounds or sores • Babies born to women with HIV/AIDS can get HIV from their mothers during birth or from breastfeeding. • HIV is not transmitted by simple casual contact such as __________________________________________
HPV • HPV stands for human papillomavirus. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Some types produce warts — plantar warts on the feet and common hand warts. About 40 types of HPV can infect the genital area — the vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis, or scrotum. • Genital HPV infections are very common. HPV is so common that about half of all men and more than 3 out of 4 women have HPV at some point in their lives. But most people who have HPV don't know it. • Most HPV infections have no harmful effect at all. • Some types of HPV may cause genital warts. These are called low-risk types of HPV. • Some types of HPV may cause cell changes that sometimes lead to cervical cancer and certain other genital and throat cancers. These are called high-risk types. • high-risk types of genital HPV can cause cancer of the cervix, vagina, vulva, anus, penis, and throat. The type of cancer HPV causes most often is cervical cancer.
HPV • HPV is spread by skin-to-skin contact — usually during vaginal, anal, or oral sex play. • An HPV vaccine can protect women against two of the HPV types that _____________________of all cases of cervical cancer. • There is currently no HPV treatment to cure HPV itself. Most HPV infections are harmless, do not require treatment, and go away by themselves. Treatment is available for the abnormal cell changes in the cervix that are caused by HPV.
Syphilis • Syphilis (SIFF-I-lis) is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria that are passed sexually. It can infect the vagina, anus, urethra, or penis, as well as the lips and mouth. • Syphilis can be a serious health risk if it is not treated. About 36,000 American women and men become infected with syphilis every year. • Often, syphilis has no symptoms or has such mild symptoms that a person doesn't notice them.
Syphilis • Primary Stage — A painless sore or open, wet ulcer, which is called a chancre, appears. You may have just one chancre or a few. Chancres usually appear about three weeks after infection, but may take up to 90 days. Without treatment, they last 3–6 weeks. Chancres can appear on the genitals, in the vagina, on the cervix, lips, mouth, breasts, or anus. Swollen glands may also occur during the primary phase. • ______________ — Other symptoms often appear 3–6 weeks after the sores appear. These syphilis symptoms may come and go for up to two years. They include body rashes that last 2–6 weeks — often on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. There are many other symptoms, including mild fever, fatigue, sore throat, hair loss, weight loss, swollen glands, headache, and muscle pains. • Late Stage — One out of three people who have syphilis that is not treated suffer serious damage to the nervous system, heart, brain, or other organs, and death may result. This can occur 1–20 years after the start of the infection.
Syphilis • The early stages of syphilis are easy to treat. If you have syphilis, you will need to take an ________________. • Keep in mind that any damage caused by syphilis in the later stages cannot be undone. • Syphilis is spread by contact with syphilis sores. Direct contact can occur during • vaginal and anal intercourse • oral sex • kissing (much less commonly) • Syphilis is especially contagious in the ___________________, when sores are present. The liquid that oozes from them is very infectious. People are usually not contagious during the latent stages of the first four years of syphilis infections. Untreated syphilis remains latent for many years or a lifetime, but can be spread from a pregnant woman to her fetus.
Overall Prevention • If you have symptoms of an STD, it's important to be tested. Some common symptoms of STDs include sores on the genitals, discharge from the penis or vagina, itching, and burning during urination. • But remember, many infections often do not cause any symptoms. Many people have sexually transmitted infections and never know it. Many people get or spread infections without ever having symptoms. • If you've had sex play with another person and did not use a condom,female condom, dental dam, or other barrier, it's a good idea to talk to your health care provider about STD testing.