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Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Infections. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) - Are infectious diseases spread from one person to another through sexual contact . Sexual Contact: Intercourse (vaginal), Anal, Oral, & touching.

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

  • -Are infectious diseases spread from one person to another through sexual contact.

Sexual Contact:

Intercourse (vaginal), Anal, Oral, & touching.

  • Body fluids that can transmit an STD:

- blood

- semen

- vaginal secretions

- breast milk


Many people with STDs are asymptomatic – without having symptoms.

  • They don’t seek treatment because they don’t know that they are infected.
  • People who do not know that they are infected can continue to transmit STDs.
high risk behavior and stds
High Risk Behavior and STDs
  • In the USA, teens make up ¼ of the estimated 15 million new cases of STDs each year. That is more than 10,000 young people infected every day.

Why are teens at a high risk for infection from STDs?

Teens that are sexually active are likely to engage in one or more of the following high risk behaviors…..

high risk sexual behaviors
High Risk Sexual Behaviors
  • Being sexually active with more than one person.
  • This includes having a series of sexual relationships with more than one person at a time. Most people don’t know the others past sexual behavior and whether he/she has an STD.
  • Engaging in unprotected sex.
  • Barrier protection is NOT 100% effective in preventing the transmission of STDs, and is not effective at all against HPV.

High risk sexual behavior continued….

  • Selecting high risk partners.
  • Such partners include those with a history of being sexually active with more than one person and also those who have injected illegal drugs.
  • Using alcohol or other drugs.
  • Alcohol can lower inhibitions. Studies show that more than 25% of teens who have engaged in sexual activity had been under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
the consequences of stds
The Consequences of STDs

Most people, teens included, are not fully aware of the consequences of STDs. These are serious infections that can dramatically change a person’s life.

  • Some STDs are incurable!
  • The pathogens that cause these disease cannot be eliminated from the body by medical treatment, such as antibiotics.These are viruses.
  • Some STDs cause cancer. The Hepatitis B virus can cause cancer of the liver. HPV can cause cancer in the cervix.

More consequences…

  • Some STDs can cause complications that affect the ability to reproduce. Females can develop Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), which damages reproductive organs and cause sterility.
  • Some STDs can be passed from an infected female to her child before, during or after birth. STDs can damage the bones, nervous system, and brain of a fetus. Infants infected with STDs at delivery may become blind, develop pneumonia and even die.
common stds
Common STDs

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

A virus that can cause genital warts or asymptomatic infection.

  • HPV is considered the most common STD in the US.
  • The CDC estimates that 50-75% of sexually active males and females acquire HPV. There are about 30 different types of HPV than can infect the genital area.
  • Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by certain types of HPV. HPV can also cause cancers of the penis and anus.

Genital warts

Pink or reddish warts with cauliflower like tops that appear on the genitals and/or the cervix one to three months after infection from HPV.

  • Genital warts are highly contagious and are spread by ANY form of sexual contact with an infected person.
  • Once infected the person has the virus for the rest of their life. Treatments can rid the body of the warts, but not the virus.


A bacterial infection that affects the reproductive organs of both males and females.

  • Forty percent of cases reported are in teens ages 15-19.

Chlamydia is asymptomatic in 75% of infected females and 50% of infected males. It often goes undetected until serious complications arise

  • When symptoms are present, males may experience a discharge from the penis and burning during urination. Females may have vaginal discharge, burning upon urination or abdominal pain.

Chlamydia is diagnosed by laboratory examination of the secretions of the cervix in females or from the urethra in males.

  • It can be treated with antibiotics, but a person can become infected again.
  • In females it can lead to PID, long term pelvic pain or infertility. It can also cause infertility in males.
genital herpes
Genital Herpes

Genital Herpes is an STD caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two types of HSV.

  • Type 1 – usually causes cold sores
  • Type 2 – usually causes genital sores

Both types can infect the mouth and genitals.


Herpes continued…

  • It is NOT true that the virus can only be spread while the sores are present. The virus can be spread while the person is asymptomatic.
  • Diagnosis is made through lab tests of the fluid from the blisters.
  • Medication can relieve the symptoms, but can not cure the virus. Once it is contracted, the virus remains in the body for life.
genital herpes cont
Genital herpes cont….
  • Most people who have genital herpes are asymptomatic and not aware that they are infected.
  • The typical symptoms are blister-like sores in the genital area that occur periodically.

The herpes virus is potentially deadly for infants that contract the virus from the mother through delivery.

  • The virus can also play a major role in the spread of HIV. People who have genital herpes are more capable of transmitting or acquiring HIV.
  • Gonorrhea is a bacterial STD that usually affects mucous membranes.
  • Can spread to bloodstream and cause
  • permanent damage to joints.
  • Can be passed during childbirth (eye infections
  • and blindness)

Gonorrhea continued….

  • Highest rates of gonorrhea infection are found in females from 15-19yrs old & and in males 20 -24 yrs old.

Symptoms in males:

  • discharge from the penis and painful urination

Symptoms in females:

  • 50% of females have no symptoms.
  • Those that do, vaginal discharge, pain or burning during urination.

Gonorrhea cont….

  • Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics.

Syphilis - an STD that attacks many parts of the body and is caused by a bacterial infection.

  • 1st sign of infection is a painless reddish sore called a chancre(SHAN-kuhr)
syphilis continued
Syphilis continued…
  • If the infection is not treated, it spreads through the blood to other parts of the body.
  • Disease can damage internal organs (heart, liver, nervous system, and kidneys).
  • If not treated, syphilis can lead to paralysis, blindness, and heart disease.
  • If passed to infant (during childbirth), baby can die.
hiv aids1

HIV- (human immunodeficiency virus) - a virus that attacks the immune system.

  • HIV is a progressive disease that destroys the immune system over many years.
  • Therefore it weakens a person’s ability to fight off infections.
  • HIV does not necessarily mean someone has AIDS. It can take years for AIDS to develop.

When HIV enters the body it invades the T cells. T cells help the white blood cells identify and destroy pathogens (organisms that cause disease)

  • The virus takes over the cells and produces a new copy of itself .
  • The virus then breaks out of the cell and destroys it.

The new virus infects other cells and this process continues to repeat.

  • As the virus increases the number of T cells decrease, which causes the immune system to become weaker.
  • The body becomes susceptible to common infections and opportunistic infections.

Opportunistic Infections – infections that occur in individuals who do not have a healthy immune system.

how is hiv transmitted
How is HIV transmitted??
  • HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person the following ways:

- blood

- semen

- vaginal secretions

- breast milk

stages of hiv
Stages of HIV

HIV develops In stages over the course of several years.

  • Asymptomatic stage – during this period, the HIV infected person has no symptoms. (6mths – 10 yrs)
  • Symptomatic stage – symptoms develop as a result of the drop in immune cells.

3. AIDS – (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) - the last stage of the HIV infection. Infected person has a severely damaged immune system. The appearance of opportunistic infections and other illnesses is frequent