Introduction • There are 6 plant processes that effect growth which are…. • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Absorption • Transpiration • Translocation • Reproduction
Use the diagram below to complete the labels on the flower structure worksheet stigma anther style carpel stamen filament ovary ovule petal sepal receptacle stem Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Plant Reproduction Click to Enter
Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Pollination The pollen grain contains the male sex cell (gamete) Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
What is Pollination?Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma • This is an example of cross-pollination as the pollen travels from one flower to a different flower. This is desirable in plants as it promotes variation. Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Pollen can be carried between flowers by insects or by wind Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Insect-pollinated flowers are adapted to attract insects to them to enable transfer of pollen Pollen has barbs for hooking onto insect fur nectar and a scent present Anthers positioned to rub pollen onto insects Sticky stigma to collect pollen Brightly coloredpetals Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Wind-pollinated flowers are different in structure because they do not have to attract insects to them but do need to be exposed to the wind. Pollen grains are very small and light. They occur in very large numbers Anthers are exposed to the wind so that pollen can easily be blown away Stigma are feathery to catch pollen carried on wind Petals are small and green as there is no need to attract insects No scent or nectary Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Self-pollination occurs when pollen falls from the anther onto the stigma of the same flower • Self-pollination is not desirable as it reduces variation • Click to show animation of self-pollination Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Flowers will prevent self-pollination by either having stigma above stamen or… Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
…by having stamen and stigma mature at different times. Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Click on the icon below to view the summary video on pollination If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ge3EM8AERV0 Insect pollination (1 minute) Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Fertilization and Fruit Development Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Once pollination occurs a tube grows from the pollen grain down through the style to the ovule stigma style carpel ovary Click to view the animation ovule Note: Petals not shown in order to simplify diagram Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Fertilization occurs when the male gamete fuses with the ovule (the female gamete) Click to view the animation Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Watch this short introductory video to review fertilization (1 minute) If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVhH2GPlckE
Seed Dispersal Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Watch the video on seed dispersal (lasts just under 10 minutes) If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbQ1jWl3AOM
After fertilization the petals, stamen and sepals fall off. The ovule turns into a seed, the fertilized egg inside develops into an embryo plant. Cotyledon: Food store Testa: tough seed coat Plumule: Embryo shoot Micropyle: Hole made by pollen tube Embryo plant Radicle:Embryo root Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Seeds need to be dispersed away from the parent plant in order to reduce competition for space, light, nutrients and water. • Seeds can be dispersed by: • Wind • Water • Mechanical • Animals
Photosynthesis • Process by which green plants manufacture food. • The beginning of the food chain for all living things on earth.
Photosynthesis • Carbon dioxide and water are combined in the presence of light to make sugar and oxygen. • The Formula is…. 6CO2 + 6H2O + 672Kcal C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon Dioxide Water Light Glucose Sugar Oxygen
Respiration • The process through which plant leaves, stems, and roots consume oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. • Plants produce much more oxygen through photosynthesis then they use through respiration.
Absorption • The process by which plant roots take in water, air, & nutrients and conduct them to the stem.
Transpiration • The process by which plants roots lose water from leaves and stems through evaporation. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mc9gUm1mMzc
Translocation • The process by which food and nutrients are moved within a plant from one plant part to another. • Water and minerals move from the roots up to the leaves and food moves from the leaves down to the roots. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-z7hbCFI2o
Classification of Plants • Vascularplants: Have tube-like structures that carry water, and nutrients throughout the plant.
Classification of Plants • Nonvascular plants: Do not have tube-like structures and use other ways to move water and substances.
Seedless Plants • Nonvascular plants like moss are only a few cells thick. Each cell absorbs water directly from it environment. • Vascular plants distribute water and nutrients to all plant cells. • Question: Which type of plant can grow larger; nonvascular and vascular? • Vascular can grow bigger and thicker because the vascular tissue distributes the water and nutrients.
Seedless Plants • Question: Name parts of a plant. • Roots • Stems • Leaves • Flowers • Question: What do the flowers produce? • Seeds
Seedless Plants • Question: Do all plants reproduce from seeds? • Some plants reproduce by spores.
Seedless Plants • Question: Can you name a plant that does not have seeds and uses spores to reproduce? • Mosses • Ferns • Video: Seedless plantg
Seedless Plants • Ferns and Mosses: • We now know that they do not reproduce by seeds but use spores. Therefore they are alike in that way. • Question: How are they different? • Think vascular, nonvascular
Seedless Plants • Peat and Coal: As seedless plants died they compacted and compressed and turned into peat. Over time the peat turned into coal.
Seedless Plants • Peat supplies about one third of Ireland’s energy requirements. • Brain Pop: Seedless Plants
Seed Plants • Most seed plants have leaves, stems, roots, and vascular tissue. • They also produce seeds. • Question: What is inside a seed? • Embryo and stored food. Video: Seeds 2:00
Seed Plants • Leaves: Where the food making process occurs. • What is the name of that process? • Photosynthesis
Seed Plants • Leaf Cell Layers
Leaf Cell Layers • Epidermis: Upper and lower surface of a leaf. • Waxy cuticle: coats Epidermis. • Stomata: Opening in leaf to allow; • What gases to enter the leaf? • Carbon dioxide to enter • What gas to exit the leaf? • Oxygen to exit the leaf.
Leaf Cell Layers • Guard Cells: Two guard cells surround each stoma to open and close it. • Video: Plant Cells 3:25, Types of plant cells 2:43
Leaf Cell Layers • Just below the epidermis is the palisade layer where most of the food is produced. • Video: Leaves 2:52
Stems • Stems: Materials move between leaves and roots through the vascular tissue in the stem. • Stems support the branches, leaves, and reproductive structures. Video: Stems 3:16
Roots • Question: What is the purpose of roots? • Transport water and other substances. • Anchor • Support • Store food Video: 1:43
Gymnosperms • Gymnosperms: Vascular plants that produce seeds that are not protected by fruit. • Question: What is an example of this type of plant? • Conifers: Pines, firs, spruces, redwoods.
Angiosperms • Angiosperms:A vascular plant that flowers and produces fruit with one or more seeds. • Question: What is an example of an angiosperm?