Plant Metabolites & Ergastic Cell Contents. Primary metabolites chlorophyll AA’s Nucleotides Simple CHO’s Membrane lipids *** ARE FOUND THROUGHOUT THE PLANT KINGDOM. Fx: Important roles in growth and development photosynthesis respiration solute transport translocation
All organic compounds
Have no direct function in growth and development
Also called secondary products or natural products
Differ from 1º metabolites in that they have a restricted distribution in the plant kingdom
Therefore: Only particular secondary metabolites are found in only one specific plant species or a taxonomically related group of species.Secondary Metabolites
Simple/complex in nature
E.g. Salicylic acid (Willow)
Act on proteins and form a protective layer on the skin & mucous membranes
Bind the tissues of the gut
Reduce diarrhoea & internal bleeding
Externally: Rxing burns, sealing wounds & reducing inflammation.
Heal infections of the eye, mouth, vagina, cervix & rectum (mucous membrane tissues)
Tannins - phenolsTannins
(& good natural dyes)
Senna & Aloe
Also make stool more liquid (Constipation)
Fx: gently stimulate colon 8-12 hrs after ingestion (stimulate peristalsis)
Can only Fx when natural bile is present.
Tend to cause colonic pain (over-stimulate colon wall)Anthraquinones
Wide range of actions
Many flowering plants contain cardiac glycosides
Fx: increase heart efficiency
NO CARDIAC STRAIN
Strong diureticCardiac Glycosides
Wide diversity of structure
Most belong to the iridoids, some to terpenes
Fx: stimulate digestive juices & appetite
Aid the liver
Play specific roles depending on herb & chemical combination e.g. Valerian & Devil’s clawBitter Principles
Effect: body & mind
Some: effect on lungs, liver, nerves, GIT
Fx in plant: ± source of excessive N2. (makes them pharmacologically active).
Divided into 13 groups based on their chemical structure (no general effects)
E.g. Atropine (Atropa belladonna) reduce spasms, relieve pain & dry up bodily secretionsAlkaloids
Instant blistering & inflammatory effect on the skin
Applied to painful areas to increase blood flow
Helps remove excessive waste products
Eating: produce a strong pungent taste.Glucosilinates
Should all be noted.NB!!!
all used to identify adulterants or allied species from medicinal herbs.