Plant Metabolites & Ergastic Cell Contents. Primary metabolites chlorophyll AA’s Nucleotides Simple CHO’s Membrane lipids *** ARE FOUND THROUGHOUT THE PLANT KINGDOM. Fx: Important roles in growth and development photosynthesis respiration solute transport translocation
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All organic compounds
Have no direct function in growth and development
Also called secondary products or natural products
Differ from 1º metabolites in that they have a restricted distribution in the plant kingdom
Therefore: Only particular secondary metabolites are found in only one specific plant species or a taxonomically related group of species.Secondary Metabolites
Simple/complex in nature
E.g. Salicylic acid (Willow)
Act on proteins and form a protective layer on the skin & mucous membranes
Bind the tissues of the gut
Reduce diarrhoea & internal bleeding
Externally: Rxing burns, sealing wounds & reducing inflammation.
Heal infections of the eye, mouth, vagina, cervix & rectum (mucous membrane tissues)
Tannins - phenolsTannins
(& good natural dyes)
Senna & Aloe
Also make stool more liquid (Constipation)
Fx: gently stimulate colon 8-12 hrs after ingestion (stimulate peristalsis)
Can only Fx when natural bile is present.
Tend to cause colonic pain (over-stimulate colon wall)Anthraquinones
Wide range of actions
Many flowering plants contain cardiac glycosides
Fx: increase heart efficiency
NO CARDIAC STRAIN
Strong diureticCardiac Glycosides
Wide diversity of structure
Most belong to the iridoids, some to terpenes
Fx: stimulate digestive juices & appetite
Aid the liver
Play specific roles depending on herb & chemical combination e.g. Valerian & Devil’s clawBitter Principles
Effect: body & mind
Some: effect on lungs, liver, nerves, GIT
Fx in plant: ± source of excessive N2. (makes them pharmacologically active).
Divided into 13 groups based on their chemical structure (no general effects)
E.g. Atropine (Atropa belladonna) reduce spasms, relieve pain & dry up bodily secretionsAlkaloids
Instant blistering & inflammatory effect on the skin
Applied to painful areas to increase blood flow
Helps remove excessive waste products
Eating: produce a strong pungent taste.Glucosilinates
Should all be noted.NB!!!
all used to identify adulterants or allied species from medicinal herbs.