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Mediation and media; change and reaction. The story so far: journalism. 17 th c for a brief period, then clamp down Early 18 th c in new social and political order: change and reaction: stability after 17 th c Public sphere Magazines Addison and commerce:

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the story so far journalism
The story so far: journalism
  • 17th c for a brief period, then clamp down
  • Early 18th c in new social and political order: change and reaction: stability after 17th c
    • Public sphere
    • Magazines
    • Addison and commerce:
      • Mercantilist capitalism with public debt
    • Sam Johnson:
      • Grub Street
      • Paternoster Row
the story so far london
The story so far: London
  • Roman north of the river
  • City (Money and trade), Westminster (law and government), Southwark (rock and roll)
  • Sucking people in
  • The new City rebuilt after Great Fire
  • Centre of national capital flows
  • Great port
the story so far your points
The story so far: your points
  • The individual and Addison
  • Blue Plaques
  • Travel: Johnson quote
  • The importance of place and time
  • Communicate content to the “you” in the reader
the story so far pr
The story so far: PR
  • Fashion + celebrities
  • Crafting the story for the brand
  • Getting the spin on the dress
william hazlitt 1778 1830
William Hazlitt (1778-1830)
  • Reason and emotion
  • From a radical family
  • Impact of the change of the first phase of the French Revolution
    • Formation of left and right
    • A republic
    • A rational state
    • Rights of people
hazlitt
Hazlitt
  • To essay: to assay – the way up
  • Radical and romantic poets
  • Remained a radical
  • On utilitalirans: Bentham’s view is like a map, correct in its form but without colour and relief
  • Attack on Tories: A Tory is...
  • In death: “He lived to see his deepest wishes gratified as he expressed them in his Essay ‘On the Fear of Death.’ Viz.: ‘To see the downfall of the Bourbons and some prospect of good to mankind.”
london
London
  • The docking facilities of the City were at breaking point and there was a lot of pilfering.
  • West India merchants proposed new docks east of London in 1793.
  • Construction started 1799; finished 1806
  • High profits and spread London out east
slide10

1799

1880

1805

1805

1855

1807

1921

1828

1868

dickens
Dickens
  • Household Words etc
  • Observed the impact of the industrial revolution: Hard Times 1854
    • The reaction to the industrial revolution
    • The Great Exhibition 1851
slide15

Observed life in London: Oliver Twist 1838

  • Told the rising middle class in his journalism “something must be done”
  • Novels as journalism: chapters published in magazines
imperial london
Imperial London
  • 1858 First trans-Atlantic cable: broke after a month
  • London: the capital and the manufacturing:
    • Cable made in London: Greenwhich
    • Great Eastern: London
    • The Victorian Internet
    • Coordinate empire
slide18

Crimean war: 1854-1856

  • Ottoman Empire (Turkey) crumbling
  • Russia expanding west, south and east
  • UK, France & Turkey v Russia
  • Fought in north of Black Sea
  • Telegraph line from Marseilles
slide19

Crimea coverage

  • William Howard Russell (1820-1907) The Times
slide20

The Battle of Balaclava in The Times 14 November 1854 in The Mammoth Book of Journalism

  • “Valour..versus a savage and barbarian enemy.”
  • Reporter as observer: I saw this...
slide21

Crimea coverage

  • “And now occurred the melancholy catastrophe which fills us all with sorrow”
  • A table of losses ends the piece
  • Went on to report Indian Mutiny, US Civil War, Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and Zulu War.
  • The Times: 700,000 circulation
slide22

Committed observer: “a savage and barbarian enemy”…. “under my own eyes”…. “A braver soldier than Capt Nolan the army did not possess.”

  • Writing for the elite as literacy low and price high
  • Changed policy on hospitals and war
  • Also image reporting...
not a profession
Not a Profession
  • Entry criteria: you can do it and you are cheap
  • Discipline: from the employer/editor
  • Exit: fired
  • Managed to make themselves professions in the 19th century:
    • Doctors
    • Dentists
    • Civil engineers etc
slide28

The ethic

  • Doctors: do not harm
  • Lawyers: represent your client
  • Journalists: get the story; entertain
  • PRs: represent your client’s best interests
george newnes 1851 19101
George Newnes 1851-1910
  • Congregationalist, Midlands, Liberal, Philanthropist
  • Tit-Bits 1881, moved to London 1885
  • The Strand 1891-1950
  • The Million 1892
  • Country Life 1897
  • Wide World Magazine 1898-1965
  • Ladies’ Field 1898
the strand 1891 1950
The Strand 1891 - 1950
  • Middle and lower upper class: “confirmed their values and fostered and celebrated their achievements” Jackson George Newnes Ashgate 2001 p88
  • Monthly: 6d (£1.96 RPI)
  • Short stories, reporting, profiles, interviews, humour
  • A-political; status quo
  • “An editorial bias in favour of the timeless as against the timely” Pound, Mirror of the Century, Heinemann, 1966, p64
  • The social space of upper-middle class literary world Jackson p102
  • 300K copies of 1st issue: 400K by 1896
the strand
The Strand
  • Mary Spencer-Warren
  • Subjects: Royalty, Royal Palaces and the upper classes
  • Regular contributor
the strand 1891 19501
The Strand 1891 - 1950
  • Middle and lower upper class: “confirmed their values and fostered and celebrated their achievements” Jackson George Newnes Ashgate 2001 p88
  • Monthly: 6d (£1.96 RPI)
  • Short stories, reporting, profiles, interviews, humour
  • A-political; status quo
  • “An editorial bias in favour of the timeless as against the timely” Pound, Mirror of the Century, Heinemann, 1966, p64
  • The social space of upper-middle class literary world Jackson p102
  • 300K copies of 1st issue: 400K by 1896
wide world magazine 1898 1965
Wide World Magazine 1898-1965

Truth is stranger than fiction

wednesday
Wednesday
  • Frontline Club
  • 13 Norfolk Place, W2
  • Paddington