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Basic Chemistry. Chapter 2 – Part 4. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates - Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms Usually in a ratio of 1 : 2 : 1. Examples: sugars and starches. Classification of Sugars. Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides. Monosaccharides.

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Basic Chemistry

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basic chemistry

Basic Chemistry

Chapter 2 – Part 4

  • Carbohydrates - Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
    • Usually in a ratio of 1 : 2 : 1.
    • Examples: sugars and starches.
classification of sugars
Classification of Sugars
  • Monosaccharides
  • Disaccharides
  • Polysaccharides
  • Monosaccharides - Single sugar molecules
    • Referred to as simple sugars
    • Single-chain or single-ring structures
    • Contain 3 to 7 carbon atoms
    • Examples in the body: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose, ribose, and deoxyribose
      • Glucose (also called blood sugar) is the universal cellular fuel.
        • Fructose and galactose are converted to glucose for use by body cells.
      • Ribose and deoxyribose form part of the structure of nucleic acids.
  • Disaccharides – Double sugar molecules
    • Formed when two simple sugars are joined by a synthesis reaction known as dehydration synthesis.
      • In this reaction, a water molecule is lost as the bond forms.
    • Examples:
      • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose (cane sugar)
      • Glucose + Galactose = Lactose (found in milk)
      • Glucose + Glucose = Maltose (malt sugar)
  • Double sugars are too large to pass through cell membranes.
    • They must be broken down (digested) to their monosaccharide unit to be absorbed by the blood.
      • This is accomplished by hydrolysis.
      • As a water molecule is added to each bond, the bond is broken, and the simple sugar units are released.
  • Polysaccharides – More than two sugar molecules
    • Because they are large, insoluble molecules, they:
      • Are ideal storage products.
      • Lack the sweetness of the simple and double sugars.
    • Examples:
      • Starch - The storage polysaccharide formed by plants; Humans ingest it in the form of “starchy” foods such as potatoes and carrots.
      • Glycogen – Polysaccharide found in animal tissues (mainly in the liver and muscles); Formed by linked glucose units.
uses of carbohydrates
Uses of Carbohydrates
  • Living things use carbohydrates as:
      • Main source of energy (starches and sugars)
      • Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes (only 1-2% of animal cell mass)
          • Some sugars are found in our genes.
          • Some sugars are attached to outer surfaces of cell membranes, where they act as road signs to guide cellular interactions.
how do we get energy from glucose
How Do We Get Energy From Glucose?
  • When glucose is oxidized (combined with oxygen) in a complex set of chemical reactions, it is broken down to carbon dioxide and water.
  • Some of the energy released as the glucose bonds are broken is trapped in the bonds of high-energy ATP molecules.
  • If not immediately needed for ATP synthesis, carbohydrates are converted to glycogen or fat and stored.
  • Common categories of lipids are:
      • Neutral Fats (Triglycerides)
      • Phospholipids
      • Steroids
  • Enter the body in the form of fat-marbled meats, egg yolks, milk products, and oils.
  • Generally not soluble in water but readily dissolve in other lipids and other in organic solvents such as alcohol and acetone.
general structure of lipids
General Structure of Lipids
  • Large and diverse group of organic compounds.
  • Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, but in lipids, carbon and hydrogen atoms far outnumber oxygen atoms.
  • Example: The formula for a typical fat named tristearin is C57H110O6.
neutral fats
Neutral Fats
  • Neutral Fats or Triglycerides contain the following structure:
    • Glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acids
      • The glycerol backbone is the same in all neutral fats, but the fatty acid chains vary and results in different kinds of neutral fats.
    • Exists as a solid or liquid.
saturated and unsaturated lipids
Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids
  • Saturated - If each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond.
      • “Saturated” is used because the fatty acids contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms.
      • Animal fats tend to be saturated.
  • Unsaturated - If there is at least one carbon-carbon double bond or triple bond in a fatty acid.
    • Have the ability to bind with more hydrogen atoms or atoms of a different type.
    • Plant oils tend to be unsaturated (such as corn oil, canola oil, sesame oil, and peanut oil).
function of neutral fats
Function of Neutral Fats
  • Represent the body’s most abundant and concentrated source of usable energy.
      • When they are oxidized, they yield large amounts of energy.
  • They are stored chiefly in fat deposits beneath the skin and around organs, where they:
    • Help insulate the body
    • Protect deeper body tissues from heat loss and bumps.
  • Glycerol molecule + 2 fatty acids + phosphorus-containing group
    • The phosphorus-containing portion (the “head”) bears an electrical charge and therefore gives phospholipids special chemical properties and polarity.
    • The charged region attracts and interacts with water and ions, but the fatty acid chains (the “tail”) do not.
    • Allows cells to be selective about what may enter or leave the membrane.
  • Steroids – Basically flat molecules formed by four interlocking rings.
    • Cholesterol is the single most important steroid molecule.
    • Enters the body in animal products such as meat, eggs, and cheese.
    • A certain amount is also made by the liver, regardless of dietary intake.
    • Uses:
      • Found in all cell membranes (particularly abundant in the brain).
      • Raw material used to form vitamin D, some hormones (sex hormones and cortisol), and bile salts.
saturated fats
Saturated Fats
  • Saturated fats and cholesterol have been implicated as substances that encourage atherosclerosis (deposit of fatty substances in our artery walls) and eventual arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
    • As a result olive oil and liquid spreads made from polyunsaturated fats are being promoted as good-tasting substitutes that do not damage our arteries.