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The New Imperialism: Beyond Congo. Origins and Terms. Some Qualifications. “New Imperialism” Focus on European imperialism Focus on imperialism in Africa and Asia. Two Explanations. Capitalism Increased productivity  need for natural resources

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some qualifications
Some Qualifications
  • “New Imperialism”
  • Focus on European imperialism
  • Focus on imperialism in Africa and Asia
two explanations
Two Explanations
  • Capitalism
    • Increased productivity  need for natural resources
    • Increased need for natural resources  increased competition among European countries
    • Increased productivity  need for new markets
  • Marxism
    • History as struggle between haves and have-nots
    • Wealthy nations will use their strength to exploit weaker nations
    • Rich get richer at the expense of the poor
    • Independence movements will eventually challenge these power relationships
terminology
Terminology
  • Colony: a country/region governed internally by a foreign power (e.g. the Congo Free State under Leopold)
  • Protectorate: a country/region with its own government, which is controlled by a foreign power
  • Sphere of influence: an area where a foreign power claims exclusive trading privileges (e.g. Liberia and the US)
  • Economic imperialism: private business interests dominate less developed countries

Increasing degree of control

belgium
Belgium
  • Congo, 1885-1962
  • Rwanda-Urundi, 1916-1962
    • Conquered from Germany during WWI
    • Coffee and labor
    • Tutsi “superiority”
france algeria
France: Algeria
  • Invades 1830; rules 1962
  • Large numbers of French settlers
  • Administered as a part of France, 1848-1962
  • Increasing conflict between settlers (pieds-noirs) and native, indigenous Muslims
  • Algerian War, 1954-1962
france cote d ivoire
France: Cote d’Ivoire
  • Before colonization, included several kingdoms
  • 1844: became a French protectorate
  • 1893: became a French colony
  • Coffee, cocoa, palm oil; significant French settlement
great britain
Great Britain
  • Attempt to establish a “red line from Cape to Cairo” – i.e., a continuous line of control from the northern to the southern end of Africa
  • Motives
    • Rivalries – especially with France
    • Economic development
    • Social Darwinism/“civilization”
    • The white man’s burden
great britain south africa
Great Britain: South Africa
  • First settled by Dutch (Boers/Afrikaners) in the 1650s
  • Discovery of diamonds (1860s) and gold (1880s)
  • Second Boer War (1899-1902) gives Britain control
  • 1910: Union of South Africa  more local control
  • 1931: Statute of Westminster  effective independence
  • 1961: Creation of Republic of South Africa  formal independence
great britain kenya
Great Britain: Kenya
  • Protectorate from 1880s-1920; colony from 1920-1963
  • White settlers farm coffee and tea
  • 1952-1959: Mau Mau rebellion – Kikuyu, extremely harsh detention system
  • 1963: independence and election of Jomo Kenyatta as president
germany
Germany
  • Germany is unified in 1871  begins to develop a navy and look beyond Europe
  • Late arrivals to the “Scramble for Africa”
  • German East Africa (Rwanda, Burundi, Tanganyika) – 1885-1919
  • German South West Africa (Namibia, parts of Botswana) – 1884-1915
  • German West Africa (Cameroon, Togo) – 1884-1914
  • Loses most colonial possessions after World War I
two exceptions
Two Exceptions
  • Ethiopia
    • Deceptive treaty with Menelik II, 1889
    • Wins the First Italo-Ethiopian War, 1895-1896
  • Liberia
    • Established by former American slaves, starting 1820
    • Republic of Liberia established 1847
    • Borders reduced by colonial competition with UK and France
china
China
  • Technically, never a colony (mostly) – but Europeans gain increasing power over trade
  • Opium trade with Britain; emperor forbids trade in 1838
  • 1839-1842: First Opium War  Treaty of Nanjing gives Britain rights and privileges in trade with China
  • France, Germany, and Russia also establish spheres of influence
  • Two actual colonies
    • Hong Kong: British colony, 1842-1941 and 1945-1997
    • Macau: Portuguese colony, 1887-1999
india
India
  • Valued for tea, sugar, silk, salt, spices
  • Weakened by political and religious conflict
  • France and England fight over India
  • 1750s: British East India Company conquers Bengal (now Bangladesh)
  • British gradually expand control over India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan
  • Sepoy Rebellion (1857) leads Britain to take control from the British East India Company
  • Remains a British colony until 1947
french indochina
French Indochina
  • Includes Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos
  • First French presence: Catholic missionaries
  • Colony established 1887; Laos added in 1893
  • Briefly supervised by Japan during WWII
japan
Japan
  • Actually an imperial power
  • Isolation broken by Commodore Matthew Perry, 1853  Meiji Restoration, 1868-1912
  • 1895: First Sino-Japanese War  Japan colonizes Korea and Taiwan
  • 1904: Russo-Japanese War  Japan colonizes Manchuria
  • Remains an imperial power until 1945
economic
Economic
  • Modernization: infrastructure, technology, education, Western medicine
  • However, means of production remain in European hands
    • India: manufactured textiles  raw cotton
  • Patterns of trade: dependence on Western manufactures and imports
  • Continued patterns of charity today?
political
Political
  • Maps are redrawn without regard for prior political or ethnic divisions
    • Iraq
    • Gambia
  • Ethnic rivalries
  • Site of European conflicts
cultural
Cultural
  • Spread of European languages
  • Religious influences
  • Decimation of African cultures, languages, traditions, systems of government…
  • European educational influences