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CBM in Reading.  Develop Measures  Administration  Scoring  Graphic Display  Analysis of Graphic Display  Error Analysis  Implications for Instruction. CBM Oral Reading Fluency. For students in Infant and early standard

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Cbm in reading

CBM in Reading

 Develop Measures

 Administration

 Scoring

 Graphic Display

 Analysis of Graphic Display

 Error Analysis

 Implications for Instruction

Cbm oral reading fluency
CBM Oral Reading Fluency

  • For students in Infant and early standard

  • Student reads grade-appropriate passage for 1 minute from ORF Student copy

  • Teacher marks errors of ORF Teacher copy

What is measured
What is measured?

  • Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) is a measure of the number of words a student reads correctly in one minute.

    • Measure of reading rate and accuracy

    • Measure related to reading comprehension

      (kids don’t read faster than they can understand what it is that they are reading)

  • Specific errors are recorded to provide useful error analysis information.

  • Sensitive to change achievement over time

Developing orf measures
Developing ORF Measures

  • Teacher copy - numbers down right side of passage for easy scoring

  • Student copy- Passage should be:

    • Void of illustration

    • Text that is representative of curriculum

      (usually random selection from

      materials used in class:

      font, passage style)

Cbm oral reading fluency1

Student copy

CBM Oral Reading Fluency

Cbm oral reading fluency2
CBM Oral Reading Fluency

  • ORF Teacher copy

  • Cumulative count of words along margin allow for easy calculation of words attempted

Administration directions for 1 minute administration of oral reading fluency passages
AdministrationDirections for 1-Minute Administration of Oral Reading Fluency Passages

1. Quiet setting

2. Individual administration

3. Unnumbered passage to student

4. Numbered passage for administrator

5. Stopwatch or (sweep second hand on watch)

6. Say, "Start reading here." (point to the title of the story).

Administration directions
Administration Directions

7. Say "begin" and start your stopwatch when the student says the first word.

8. Follow along on the examiner copy of the passage, marking the words that are read incorrectly. Use the markings for error types as best you can.

9. If a student comes to the end of a passage before the time is up, point to the beginning of the passage and say to the student, "start again."

10. At the end of one minute (60 seconds) say, "stop" and place a bracket ( ] ) after the last word read.

Administration directions1
Administration Directions

“When I say 'begin,' start reading aloud at the top of the page.

Try to read each word. If you come to a word you don't know,

I'll tell it to you. Be sure to do your best reading. Do you have

any questions?”

If desired administrators may provide some background information:

“You are going to read this story titled I Want to be Big Now

out loud. This story is about a girl named June who wants to play.

In order to play she thinks she needs to be big. Read this story

until I say stop. If you come to a word you don't know, I'll tell it to you.

Show me your best reading.”

Cbm in reading

ORF Error Markings




Scoring sample
Scoring Sample





Analysis of the data
Analysis of the data:

Describe the data points for this student in relation to the AIMLINE

Describe the types of errors this student is making in the close materials.


Collect more data


Increase the goal for this student

Intervention description:

Oral reading fluency case of elana
Oral Reading Fluency Case of Elana

Oral reading fluency case of elana1
Oral Reading Fluency Case of Elana

Error analysis
Error Analysis

Sound Multi- Irregular Word Rule Other

Comb. syllabic Endings Based

Cbm in reading

Error analysis

  • Involves reviewing the student’s scored CBM reading probes to identify specific error types and patterns

  • Set priorities for teaching

    Error patterns

  • Indicate areas in need of further instruction

  • Constitute a database for determining what content and strategies to teach


  • What does the error analysis indicate?

    • Word reading errors?

    • Fluency errors?

    • Vocabulary problems?

    • Overall understanding

      • Prosody’

      • Rate

      • Accuracy

Word reading errors
Word reading errors?

  • Isolate/target the skill

  • Teach the skill and discrimination in isolation

  • Practice words on target skill with discrimination

  • Practice passage reading

Example of instruction intervention teaching sound combinations
Example of Instruction InterventionTeaching Sound Combinations

  • Teach letter combination in isolation

  • Teach and practice discrimination of new sound combination and known sounds and sound combinations

  • Integrate sound combination into words and word reading

Teaching sound combinations guidelines for making a word list
Teaching Sound Combinations Guidelines for making a word list

  • 10 - 15 words

  • 1st three words - new combination

  • 50% of all words - new combination

  • Other words of known word types (preskills)

  • 2 sets of minimally different pairs

  • Focus Min. Pairs on new skill (ch)

  • e.g. (ch) chap cap chip ship

  • chat hat chat that

Adapted from Carnine, Silbert, & Kameenui, (1997)

Teaching sound combinations
Teaching Sound listCombinations

Example wordlist - new skill ou

round trout

loud proud

bout pond

boot moon

bean pound

• 10 - 15 words • 50% new skill

• 1st three words new skill • 2 min. different pairs

Isolate target the skill
Isolate/target the skill list

Team work!

Teach the skill discrimination in isolation
Teach the skill & listdiscrimination in isolation

Cbm in reading

Fluency: list

Passage Reading Procedures

Call onindividualstudents to read a few sentences

Maintainpositive interactions, interest in story etc. (you may make comments)

Monitor closely, all students should have eyes on text and following along (you may want to require fingers under each word, depending on skill level [not age]).

Cbm in reading

Model occasionally, listdemonstrate the type of reading you have as a goal for your learners (not as well as you can read)

Vary reading order of students,predictability will facilitate “off-task” behavior.

Be prepared to correct,provide correct information, student repeat, direct reader to beginning of sentence to reread and continue.

Passage reading corrections
Passage Reading Corrections list

  • Quickly stop the reader

  • Say the answer (word missed)

  • Repeat -Have student read the word

  • Repeat sentence - Have the student reread the sentence

  • Repeat the paragraph – Have student reread the paragraph - only if > 3 errors