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Summer Institute: Introduction to CBM in Reading
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  1. 2 0 0 5 Summer Institute:Introduction to CBM in Reading Michelle K. Hosp Laura Sáenz July 8, 2005

  2. Overview • Overview of CBM in Reading • Step 1: How to Place Students in a Reading CBM Task • Step 2: How to Identify the Level of Material for Monitoring Progress • Step 3: How To Administer and Score Reading Probes • Step 4: How to Use Data to Describe Student Strengths and Weaknesses

  3. Distinguishing Features of Curriculum-Based Measurement • Every assessment samples the same, relatively broad range of skills and is of equivalent difficulty • Methods for sampling curriculum and for administering/scoring assessments are prescriptive • Those methods are based on reliability, validity, and treatment utility studies

  4. Distinguishing Features of Curriculum-Based Measurement • The CBM score can be viewed as a performance indicator, representing global competence in the target domain • Relies on repeated performance sampling • Displays time-series data in graphic form • Incorporates qualitative descriptions of student performance

  5. Distinguishing Features of Curriculum-Based Measurement • Yields Information About • Academic standing as well as growth • Global competence as well as skill-by-skill Mastery • Can Answer Questions About • Interindividual difference • Intraindividual improvement • How to strengthen programs

  6. CBM in Reading • Not interested in making kids read faster • Interested in kids becoming better readers • The CBM score is an overall indicator of reading competence • Students who score high on CBM • Are better decoders • Are better at sight vocabulary • Are better comprehenders • Correlates highly with other global measures of reading (e.g. high stakes testing; commercially available tests; teacher made tests)

  7. CBM Reading Tasks • Kindergarten: Letter-sound fluency • Grade 1: Word-identification fluency • Grades 2-3: Passage reading fluency • Grades 4-6: Maze fluency

  8. KindergartenLetter-Sound Fluency p U z u y i t R e w O a s d f v g j S h k m n b V Y E i c x … Teacher: Say the sound that goes with each letter. Time: 1 minute

  9. KindergartenLetter-Sound Fluency • Alternate-passage stability (3 weeks):.92 - .94 • Criterion validity with WRMT: .58 - .71 • Predictive Validity with CBM (Fall 1 to Spring 1): .68 • Predictive Validity with CBM (Fall K to Spring 1): .54 • Predictive Validity with TerraNova (Fall 1 to Spring 1): .53 • Predictive Validity with TerraNova (Fall K to Spring 1): .43

  10. Grade 1Word-Identification Fluency two for come because last from ... Teacher: Read these words. Time: 1 minute.

  11. Grade 1 Word-Identification Fluency • Alternate-passage stability (3 weeks): .97 • Concurrent Validity: • WRMT- WID: .77 (Fall) - .82 (spring) • CBM- PRF: .93 (spring) • CRAB- Comprehension: .73 (spring) • Predictive Validity: Between .63 - .80 from fall to spring on: • WRMT- WID • CBM- PRF • CRAB- Comprehension

  12. Grades 2-3: Passage Reading Fluency • Number of words read aloud correctly in 1 minute on end-of-year passages

  13. CBM passage for Correct Words Per Minute • Jason Fry ran home from school. He had to pack his clothes. He was going to the beach. He packed a swimsuit and shorts. He packed tennis shoes and his toys. The Fry family was going to the beach in Florida. • The next morning Jason woke up early. He helped Mom and Dad pack the car, and his sister, Lonnie, helped too. Mom and Dad sat in the front seat. They had maps of the beach. Jason sat in the middle seat with his dog, Ruffie. Lonnie sat in the back and played with her toys. • They had to drive for a long time. Jason looked out the window. He saw farms with animals. Many farms had cows and pigs but some farms had horses. He saw a boy riding a horse. Jason wanted to ride a horse, too. He saw rows of corn growing in the fields. Then Jason saw rows of trees. They were orange trees. He sniffed their yummy smell. Lonnie said she could not wait to taste one. Dad stopped at a fruit market by the side of the road. He bought them each an orange.

  14. Grades 2-3: Passage Reading Fluency • Alternate-passage stability(3 weeks): .92 • Criterion validity with WRMT: .70 - .89 • Predictive validity with CBM (22-30 weeks): .72 - .86 • Predictive validity with TerraNova (22-30 weeks): .65 - .72

  15. Grades 4-6: Maze Fluency Number of words replaced correctly in 2.5 minutes on end-of-year passages from which every 7th word has been deleted and replaced with 3 choices

  16. Computer Maze

  17. Grades 4-6: Maze Fluency • Alternate-passage stability (3 weeks): .94 • Criterion validity with WRMT: .71 - .93 • Predictive Validity with CBM (22-30 weeks): .70 - .84 • Predictive Validity with TerraNova (22-30 weeks): .67 - .74

  18. CBM Reading Benchmarks • K: 40 letter sounds per min • 1: 50 words correct from list per min • 2: 75 words correct from text per min • 3: 100 words correct from text per min • 4: 20 replacements to text per 2.5 min • 5: 25 replacements to text per 2.5 min • 6: 30 replacements to text per 2.5 min

  19. CBM Reading Risk Indicators 1: < 15 words in lists/min 2: < 15 words in text/min 3: < 50 words in text/min 4: < 70 words in text/min 5-7: < 15 maze replacements/2.5 min

  20. Minimum Assessment Schedule • At or above benchmark:3 times/year • Below benchmark:monthly or weekly

  21. Step 1: How to Place Students in a Reading CBM Task • At Kindergarten • Letter Sound Fluency • At Grade 1 • Word Identification Fluency • At Grades 2-3 • Passage Reading Fluency • At Grades 4-6 • Maze Fluency

  22. Step 2: How to Identify the Level of Material for Monitoring Progress • Generally, students use the CBM materials prepared for their grade level • However, some students may need to read from a different grade level if they are well below grade-level expectations

  23. Step 2: How to Identify the Level of Material for Monitoring Progress • To find the appropriate CBM level: • Determine grade level text for student • Administer 3 CBM Passage Reading Fluency passages • If student reads 10-50 words correct in 1 minute but with less than 85-90% accuracy, move to next lower CBM level • If student reads more than 50 words correct in 1 minute, move to the highest level of text where he/she reads between 10-50 words correct

  24. Step 3: How To Administer and Score Reading Probes • Students read letters, isolated words or passages for 1 minute • Student reads out loud while teacher marks student errors • The number of letters or words correct is calculated and graphed on student graph • Four CBM reading tasks are considered

  25. CBM Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) • For kindergarten students • Student presented with page of 26 random letters on LSF Student Copy • Student reads the letter sounds for 1 minute • Teacher marks errors on LSF Teacher Score Sheet

  26. CBM Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) • Student copy of LSF • Letters in the box are practice

  27. CBM Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) • LSF Teacher Score Sheet • Errors are marked with a slash (/) • Score is adjustedif student completes in less than 1 minute

  28. CBM Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) • Only short vowel sounds are correct. • If the student answers correctly, immediately point to the next letter on the student’s copy.

  29. CBM Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) • If the student does not respond after 3 seconds, point to the next letter. • Do not correct errors.

  30. CBM Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) • Mark errors on teacher’s score sheet. • At 1 minute, circle the last letter the child attempts.

  31. CBM Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) • Abby’s CBM LSF • Errors are marked with a slash (/) • Last sound (/r/) is circled • 23 sounds attempted • 5 incorrect • Abby’s score = 18

  32. CBM Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) • Let’s practice. • This is the Teacher Score Sheet.

  33. Let’s practice. This is the Student copy. CBM Letter Sound Fluency (LSF)

  34. What if a student finishes in less than 1 minute? • Record the number of seconds it took the student to read • Count the number of words the student read correctly(number of words read correctly/number of seconds it took toread) x 60 = estimated number of words read correctly in 1 minute

  35. Example for Prorating Score Example: The student finished reading the list of 50 words in just 54 seconds and got 44 words correct. • (44/54) x 60 = .815 x 60 = 48.9; We estimate that the student would have read approximately 49 words correctly in 1 minute had we provided more words and timed the student for 1 minute.

  36. CBM Word Identification Fluency (WIF) • For first-grade students • Student presented with a list of 50 words • Student reads words for 1 minute • Teacher marks errors on WIF Score Sheet

  37. CBM WIF Student list CBM Word Identification Fluency (WIF)

  38. WIF Teacher Score Sheet Words read correctly marked as ‘1’ Words read incorrectly marked as ‘0’ CBM Word Identification Fluency (WIF)

  39. CBM Word Identification Fluency (WIF) • If the student hesitates, prompt her to move to the next word after2 seconds. • If the student is sounding out a word, prompt him to move to the next word after 5 seconds.

  40. CBM Word Identification Fluency (WIF) • Do not correct errors. • Mark errors on score sheet.

  41. CBM Word Identification Fluency (WIF) • At 1 minute, circle the last word the student reads. • If the student finishes in less than 1 minute, note the number of seconds it took to complete the word list. • See administration and scoring guide for information on adjusting scores.

  42. Shameka’s CBM WIF Correct words marked as ‘1’ Incorrect words marked as ‘0’ Last word read (car) is circled Shameka’s score = 29 CBM Word Identification Fluency (WIF)

  43. Let’s practice. This is the Teacher Score Sheet. CBM Word Identification Fluency (WIF)

  44. Let’s practice. This is the Student list. CBM Word Identification Fluency (WIF)

  45. CBM Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) • For students in grades 2-8 • Student reads grade-appropriate passage for 1 minute from PRF Student copy • Teacher marks errors on PRF Teacher copy

  46. PRF Student copy CBM Passage Reading Fluency (PRF)

  47. PRF Teacher copy Numbers along margin allow for easy calculation of words attempted CBM Passage Reading Fluency (PRF)

  48. CBM Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) • Scoring guidelines: • Repetitions, self-corrections, insertions, and dialectical differences are all scored as CORRECT • Mispronunciations, word substitutions, omitted words, hesitations (word not said within 3 seconds), and reversals are all scored as ERRORS

  49. Additional scoring guidelines: A skipped lineis counted as1 error Every word but1 of the words is subtracted from the total number of words attempted CBM Passage Reading Fluency (PRF)

  50. CBM Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) • Reggie’s CBM PRF • Words read incorrectly marked with a slash (/) • Lines omitted marked with a horizontal line • Last word read in1 minute marked with a slash