CBM FOCUS Data-Driven Decisions in the RTI/Problem-Solving Model
Today’s Plan • Theory • RTI • Problem-Solving • CBM • Graphing • Practice data entry • Decision-Making • Schoolwide Implementation • RTI • CBM Focus
References • Implementing Response-to-Intervention in Elementary and Secondary Schools (Burns & Gibbons, 2008) • ABC’s of CBM (Hosp, Hosp, and Howell, 2007) • George Batsche, USF • Fixsen, Blasé, Duda, Naoom, Van Dyke (2008) • Amber Roderick-Landward (UPDC)
More Resources • Probes • www.mathfactscafe.com • www.aimsweb.com • http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/rti/rti_wire.php • The Crate • Interventions • www.interventioncentral.org • http://www.gosbr.net/ • http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/rti/rti_wire.php • Your brains (“Professional Judgment”)
Theory RtI, Problem-Solving, and CBM
Three-Tiered Model of School Supports & the Problem-solving Process ACADEMIC SYSTEMS Tier 3: Comprehensive & IntensiveStudents who need individualized interventions. Tier 2: Strategic InterventionsStudents who need more support in addition to the core curriculum. Tier 1: Core CurriculumAll students, including students who require curricular enhancements for acceleration. BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS Tier 3: Intensive InterventionsStudents who need individualized intervention. Tier 2: Targeted Group InterventionsStudents who need more support in addition to school-wide positive behavior program. Tier 1: Universal Interventions All students in all settings.
Define the Problem Defining Problem/Directly Measuring Behavior Problem Analysis Validating Problem Ident Variables that Contribute to Problem Develop Plan Evaluate Response to Intervention (RtI) Implement Plan Implement As Intended Progress Monitor Modify as Necessary Problem Solving Process DATA
Response to Intervention • RtI is the practice of (1) providing high-quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and (2) using learning rate over time and level of performance to (3) make important educational decisions (Batsche, et al., 2005) • Problem-solving is the process that is used to develop effective instruction/interventions.
Decision Rules: What is a “Good” Response to Intervention? Positive Response Gap is closing Can extrapolate point at which target student(s) will “come in range” of target--even if this is long range Level of “risk” lowers over time Questionable Response Rate at which gap is widening slows considerably, but gap is still widening Gap stops widening but closure does not occur Poor Response Gap continues to widen with no change in rate.
Positive Questionable Poor Response to Intervention Expected Trajectory Performance Observed Trajectory Time
Decision Rules: Linking RtI to Intervention Decisions Positive Continue intervention with current goal Continue intervention with goal increased Fade intervention to determine if student(s) have acquired functional independence.
Decision Rules: Linking RtI to Intervention Decisions Questionable Was intervention implemented as intended? If no - employ strategies to increase implementation integrity If yes - Increase intensity of current intervention for a short period of time and assess impact. If rate improves, continue. If rate does not improve, return to problem solving. Dual Discrepancy
Decision Rules: Linking RtI to Intervention Decisions Poor Was intervention implemented as intended? If no - employ strategies in increase implementation integrity If yes - Is intervention aligned with the verified hypothesis? (Intervention Design) Are there other hypotheses to consider? (Problem Analysis) Was the problem identified correctly? (Problem Identification) Dual Discrepancy
Types of evaluation • Summative • Occurs after teaching/learning • Measures the end result • Formative • Occurs during teaching/learning • Measures the process of learning
Tier 1 • Characteristics • Available to all students in gen ed setting • 80% of kids respond • May vary from year to year, setting to setting • Not the same as “the curriculum” or “the lesson plans” • What’s your Tier 1? • Reading? • Math? • Writing?
Tier 2 • Characteristics of Tier 2 Interventions • Available in general education settings • Opportunity to increase exposure (Academic Engaged Time) to curriculum • Opportunity to narrow focus of the curriculum • Sufficient time for interventions to have an effect (10-30 weeks) • Often are “standardized” supplemental curriculum protocols • Most effective intervention: Explicit Instruction
Tier 3 • Individual and/or Very Small Group • Individual Diagnostic Procedures • Intensive Interventions • Goal is to determine interventions that close the GAP • Pre-requisite for consideration for any special education program
Fidelity • Interventions must be implemented w/ fidelity • Problem: Students cannot benefit from interventions they do not experience or experience only intermittently • Interventions need built into them a way of verifying fidelity • Make it easy and an inherent part of intervention • LCMT support (observation, checklists)
Special Education • Question: • Where does Special Ed fit in with the 3-Tier Model? • The 3 Tiers are not hoops to special education • If we send a student to special education not knowing what helps her, what good have we done for her?
Assessments Needed to Guide Instruction An effective, comprehensive academic system includes assessments for four purposes: 1: Outcome - Provides a bottom-line evaluation of the effectiveness of the program in relation to established performance levels. 2: Screening Assessments-Target a group of students who need additional support 3: Diagnostic Assessments- Pinpoint instructional needs 4: Progress Monitoring - Shows whether the instruction is effective and impacting student skill development ALL PART OF AN ASSESSMENT PROCESS!
CBA Curriculum-Based Assessments CBM Curriculum-Based Measurement (General Outcome Measurement) CBE Curriculum-Based Evaluation (Mastery Measurement)
Specific Subskill Mastery Measurement • Curriculum is broken down into specific “Subskills” or short-term instructional objectives • Assess specific skill that is being taught • Example • “r” controlled vowels in reading • Single digit addition, without regrouping • Skills usually assessed using “teacher-made tests” or tests in curriculum • Unknown reliability & validity
Specific Subskill Mastery Measurement, cont. • Retention and Generalization of skills • Not usually measured • Measurement shifts • Overall progress is difficult to describe because: • 1) different skills are measured at different points in time • 2) different skills are not of equal difficulty and do not represent equal curriculum units
Basic Math Facts Addition Facts Subtraction Facts Multiplication Facts
General Outcome Measurement • Goal is to assess a global outcome (reading, written, math, spelling, comprehension) important for school success • Assess indicators of these global outcomes • Reading = reading fluency • Math = math fluency & problem solving • Spelling = correct letter sequences • Rather than assessing individual skills, students are assessed on long term curricular goal performance
General Outcome Measurement Using CBM, cont. • No measurement shifts. • Same procedure is used to assess students across the school year • Able to see student progress over time • Good reliability & validity • Does not rely on teacher made tests • Measurement methodology is prescriptive
Examples of General Outcome Measurement • Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) • AKA AIMSWEB • (Shinn, 1989; Deno & Mirkin) • Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) (Good & Kaminski) • Skills-Based Measurement (SBM) • Others?
Downsides to General Outcome Measurement • Often lacks information on specific subskills • If interested in identifying specific skills to teach, GOM not appropriate • Can gather some diagnostic information from progress monitoring on material of equal difficulty • Fidelity of implementation is important
Benefits of CBM • Tied to the curriculum • Relevant for instructional planning • Creating instructional groups • Highly correlated with other academic measures • Inexpensive to assess & reproduce • Motivating for students • Teachers change instruction more often • Short Duration (1-3 minutes) • Fluency-based
Benefits of CBM • No measurement shifts • Same procedure is used to assess students across the entire school year • Able to see student progress over time • Good reliability & validity • Does not rely on teacher-made tests • Methods are standardized • Efficient • Easy and Efficient to administer and score
Benefits of CBM • Parents understand CBM information
Disadvantages of CBM • It must be implemented correctly for students and teachers to benefit • Teachers must do more than just administer CBM correctly, they must use the information to make instructional changes
Goal of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) Monitor student progress on global outcomes important for school success (i.e., reading, written expression, spelling, & math) to facilitate instructional planning
Benchmarking & Progress MonitoringWhat is the difference? • Benchmark: aid in identification of students at-risk; administered 3 times a year (fall, winter, spring) • Progress Monitoring: used to track individual students’ learning, plan instruction, and provide feedback to students; administered weekly or biweekly
Performance Standards • Exemplar Sampling • Predictive Validity Model • Logistic Regression can be computed • p=(exp(β0 + β2X))/(1 + exp(β0 + β1X)) • Norm Sampling • National • Local (State, District, School, Class) • Benchmarks • Lowest score indicating not going to fail
Group Diagnostic Continue with Core Instruction Individual Instruction Individual Diagnostic Intensive 1-5 % All students at a grade level None Grades Classroom Assessments Utah CRT Small Group Differentiated by Skill Weekly Supplemental 5-10% 2x month Universal Screening Core 80-90% Fall Winter Spring How Does It Fit Together? Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Additional Diagnostic Assessment Instruction Results/Monitoring
CBM Focus A Tool for Student Identification, Intervention Development, and Progress Monitoring
SchoolwideImplementation “In theory there is no difference between theory and practice. In practice there is.” -Yogi Berra
Integrated & Compensatory OUTCOMES (% of Participants who Demonstrate Knowledge, Demonstrate new Skills in a Training Setting, and Use new Skills in the Classroom) TRAINING COMPONENTS Knowledge Skill Demonstration Use in the Classroom Theory and Discussion 10% 5% 0% ..+Demonstration in Training 30% 20% 0% …+ Practice & Feedback in Training 60% 60% 5% …+ Coaching in Classroom 95% 95% 95% Joyce and Showers, 2002
Stages of Implementing Problem-Solving/RtI • Consensus • Belief is shared • Vision is agreed upon • Implementation requirements understood • Infrastructure Development • Problem-Solving Process • Data System • Policies/Procedures • Training • Tier I and II intervention systems • E.g., K-3 Academic Support Plan • Technology support • Decision-making criteria established • Implementation
Effective RTI Schools • Characteristics (Crawford and Torgeson, 2008) • Strong Leadership – PRINCIPALS are key • Positive Belief and Teacher Dedication • Data Utilization and Analysis • Effective Scheduling • Professional Development • Scientifically-Based Intervention Programs • Parent Involvement
Schoolwide implementation • 3-Tier Model • Start with Tier 1 • 80% of kids • If a Tier is not effective, you’ll be overloading higher Tiers • Organize school/grade/class to facilitate this • Grade level teams schedule teaching to spread students for appropriate instruction • Principals are critical • The teacher is most important person in implementing • The rest of us are there to help the teacher help the child
Schooldwide Models • Within the Classroom • Schoolwide RTI Time • Floating RTI
Implementing CBM Focus Schoolwide • Baby Steps • Do one subject more than currently doing • Pilot w/ teachers, grades • Sufficient Training • Coaching • Grade Level Teams • LCMT support • Data Manager for schoolwide data • Excel specialist • Standard protocol for school • Data collection • Use of data • Schedule of data collection