Unit 4 KMT, Gas Laws and States of Matter Learning Target: I can describe differences between solids, liquids and gases at the atomic and molecular levels. . Solids Solids have definite shapes and definite volume. Crystalline solids – highly ordered arrangement of
Laws and States of Matter
Learning Target: I can describe differences between solids, liquids and gases at the atomic and molecular levels..
Solids have definite shapes and definite volume.
Crystalline solids –
particles with definite melting points (i.e. NaCl, metals, gem stones)
Amorphous solids –
Irregular arrangement of
particles with no definite melting points
(i.e. glass, plastics, wax)
The gas we put in our cars is a liquid. It is not in the gaseous state. Gas vapors are in the gaseous state.
I can use the kinetic molecular theory, KMT, to explain the states and properties of matter and phase changes.
Ideal gas – a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.
Elastic collision – one in which there is no net loss of total kinetic energy.
…based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion.
Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that are far apart relative to their size.
Collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastic collisions.
Gas particles are in continuous, rapid, random motion. They therefore possess kinetic energy which is energy of motion.
There are no forces of attraction between gas particles.
5. The temperature of a gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the particles of the gas.
KE = ½ mv2
KE = kinetic energy
m = mass
V = velocity (speed)
I can describe each of the following characteristic properties of gases: expansion, density, fluidity, compressibility, diffusion, and effusion.
Expansion – gases completely fill any container in which they are enclosed and they take its shape.
Fluidity – gas particles glide easily past one another. This ability to flow causes gases to behave as liquids do and to be fluid.
Low Density – The density of a gaseous substance at atmospheric pressure is about 1/1000 the density of the same substance in the liquid or solid state because of the
Compressibility – the gas particles that are initially very far apart are crowded closer together.
When you push a bicycle pump,
for example, you are squeezing the
air inside into a smaller space.
The air particles are forced
closer together, and bang
against each other and
against the sides of the pump
Diffusion – spontaneous mixing of the particles of two or more substances caused by their random motion and distance between particles.
Effusion –a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening. Low mass particles effuse faster than high mass particles.
Real Gas – a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.
Real gases do occupy space and exert attractive forces on each other.
I can explain the basis and importance of the absolute temperature scale and convert between the Kelvin and Celsius scales.
Temperature Conversion Worksheet
K= Co + 273
Convert the following to Kelvin
1) 0 oC ________
2) -50 oC ________
3) 90 oC ________
4) -20 oC ________
Convert the following to Celsius
5) 100K _______
6) 200K ________
7) 273K ________
8) 350K ________
Select 6 random temperature numbers.
Make 3 in °C and convert to K
Make 3 in K and convert to °C