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Unit 4 KMT, Gas Laws and States of Matter Learning Target: I can describe differences between solids, liquids and gases at the atomic and molecular levels. . Solids Solids have definite shapes and definite volume. Crystalline solids – highly ordered arrangement of

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Unit 4 KMT, Gas

Laws and States of Matter

Learning Target: I can describe differences between solids, liquids and gases at the atomic and molecular levels..

slide2

Solids

Solids have definite shapes and definite volume.

Crystalline solids –

highly ordered

arrangement of

particles with definite melting points (i.e. NaCl, metals, gem stones)

Amorphous solids –

Irregular arrangement of

particles with no definite melting points

(i.e. glass, plastics, wax)

slide3

Solids

  • Motion:
  • Fixed position
  • Only vibrational movement around
  • fixed point
  • Low rate of diffusion
  • Attractive Forces:
  • Intermolecular forces are the most effective in solids
  • Solid to a liquid by the addition of energy as heat
slide4

Liquids

  • No definite shape
  • Definite volume
  • Cannot be compressed
  • Take the shape of their container
  • Particles close together and move randomly
  • Strong forces of attraction
  • Surface tension due to attractive forces
  • Fluids - Can flow
  • Diffuse slowly
  • Viscosity ranges from low to high
  • Vaporization – liquid to gas
  • Boiling – liquid to gas throughout a liquid by addition of heat
  • All liquids freeze
slide6

The gas we put in our cars is a liquid. It is not in the gaseous state. Gas vapors are in the gaseous state.

slide7

Learning Target:

I can use the kinetic molecular theory, KMT, to explain the states and properties of matter and phase changes.

slide8

Support Vocabulary:

Ideal gas – a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.

Elastic collision – one in which there is no net loss of total kinetic energy.

slide9

The Kinetic-Molecular Theoryof Gases

…based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion.

Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that are far apart relative to their size.

Collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastic collisions.

slide10

Gas particles are in continuous, rapid, random motion. They therefore possess kinetic energy which is energy of motion.

There are no forces of attraction between gas particles.

slide11

5. The temperature of a gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the particles of the gas.

KE = ½ mv2

KE = kinetic energy

m = mass

V = velocity (speed)

slide12

Learning Target:

I can describe each of the following characteristic properties of gases: expansion, density, fluidity, compressibility, diffusion, and effusion.

slide13

Expansion – gases completely fill any container in which they are enclosed and they take its shape.

slide14

Fluidity – gas particles glide easily past one another. This ability to flow causes gases to behave as liquids do and to be fluid.

CO2

flowing

slide15

Low Density – The density of a gaseous substance at atmospheric pressure is about 1/1000 the density of the same substance in the liquid or solid state because of the

great

distance

between

particles.

slide16

Compressibility – the gas particles that are initially very far apart are crowded closer together.

slide17

Gases can be easily squashed,

or compressed.

When you push a bicycle pump,

for example, you are squeezing the

air inside into a smaller space.

The air particles are forced

closer together, and bang

against each other and

against the sides of the pump

slide18

the perfume.

Diffusion – spontaneous mixing of the particles of two or more substances caused by their random motion and distance between particles.

slide19

Effusion –a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening. Low mass particles effuse faster than high mass particles.

slide21

Real Gas – a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.

Real gases do occupy space and exert attractive forces on each other.

slide22

Learning Target:

I can explain the basis and importance of the absolute temperature scale and convert between the Kelvin and Celsius scales.

slide25

Name:____ Date ____ Period ____

Temperature Conversion Worksheet

K= Co + 273

Convert the following to Kelvin

1) 0 oC ________

2) -50 oC ________

3) 90 oC ________

4) -20 oC ________

Convert the following to Celsius

5) 100K _______

6) 200K ________

7) 273K ________

8) 350K ________

Select 6 random temperature numbers.

Make 3 in °C and convert to K

Make 3 in K and convert to °C