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UNIT 3States of Matter Solids Liquids Gases
C4.3 B Describing three states of matter... Solid - definite shape and volume Liquid - definite volume, changes shape Gas - changes shape and volume
Kinetic Molecular Theory • All matter is made up of small particles. • Which are . . . . • All of the particles are in constant motion. • Kinetic Energy = KE = ½ mv2 • Collision between particles are perfectly elastic (no energy is lost to the surroundings).
C2.2B Three types of particle motion • Vibrational - moves around fixed point • solids, liquids, gases • Translational - particles freely move past one another • liquids, gases • Rotational- rotates around fixed axis • gases
Solids • Amorphous • a random arrangement of the particles with no repeating pattern. • No set melting point • Example: Glass, rubber, chocolate
Crystalline • Crystalline • a regular arrangement of the particles with some kind of repeating pattern producing a crystal. • Known melting point • Crystal shapes are classified according to their shapes into 7 systems
Crystal Structures (pg 281) • Cubic • Tetragonal • Orthorhombic • Monoclinic • Triclinic • Hexagonal • Rhombohedral
Diamonds • Cubic Crystal Structure • The hardest of all known minerals, can only be scratched by another diamond.
The 4 C’s of Diamonds • Cut • Color • Clarity • Carat • NOTICE – COST IS NOT A “C”
Cut • The brilliance is dependent on the proportions and symmetry of the cut. • Round, princess, etc… • Rated with - Excellent, Very Good, …
Color • Usually colorless, but can occur in all colors. • DEF (Colorless) • All the way to Z (yellow)
Carat (not karat) • One carat equal 0.2 grams • Measured to 0.001 carat and rounded to 0.01 carats
Clarity • Fl (Flawless, no blemish under 10x) • V V S1 and V V S2 • VS1 and VS2 • SI1 and SI2 • I1,I2, I3 (obvious blemishes)
History of Engagement Ring • Became popular in 1477 • Archduke Maximillian of Hamburg and Mary of Burgandy • De Beers Consolidate Mines, Ltd 1888 was created to protect the investment of diamond mine investors from new mine found in S. Africa 1870. • This flooded the market and by 1919 sales declined by 50% • Ad campaign of 1939 made diamond ring of choice
World’s Largest/ Famous Diamonds • Cullinan I – known as the Star of Africa • Largest cut diamond at 530 carats, found in Tower of London as part of the crown jewels
The Blue Hope Diamond • owned by Louis XIV • Stolen in French revolution and reappeared in 1830 • Bought by Henry Phillip Hope of London • Cursed- two of the owner had their entire families die just one year apart • Found in Smithsonian
Colored Diamonds • Colored Diamonds are a result of impurities
Life Gems • Making diamonds from loved ones • Your loved one’s ashes under extreme temperature and pressure can be changed into a colored diamonds pendant or ring
Carbon… • Allotropes (draw or describe each) • graphite • diamonds • buckeyball
Conduction • Transfer of heat between substances that are in direct contact with each other.
Good conductors? • Poor conductors?
Convection • Up and downward movement of gases and liquid caused by heat transfer
Radiation • Electromagnetic waves come in contact with an object and the waves transfer heat
Pressure • The ratio of force per unit area. • Standard Pressure is defined as air pressure at sea level. • As altitude increases, pressure decreases
Standard Pressures • Pressure at Sea Level in 7 different units • 14.7 Psi • 30.00 inches Hg • 760 mm Hg • 760 torr • 1.00 atmospheres (atm) • 1013 Millibars • 101.3 kilopascals (kPa)
Standard Pressure Uses • psi – tire pressure/ paint ball • inches Hg – US weather reports • mm Hg- same as torr - medical • Normal blood pressure is 110 to 150 mmHg when heart beats and 60 to 80 mmHg when heart relaxes • Torr – another name for mmHg (named after scientists Torricelli)
More pressures • mb – meteorologist • kPa– pascals is SI unit • atm – pressure at earth’s surface (1 atm)
Temperature • The hotness or coldness of an object corresponding to its molecular activity • A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object.
Temperature Effects • As temp increases, average KE (kinetic energy) increases • As temp decrease, average KE decreases
How low can you go? • Absolute Zero • Particles have zero KE • All particle motion stops • 0 Kelvin = -273.15 Celsius
Record Low Temperatures • Prospect Creek, Alaska • Jan. 23, 1971 -80ºF • Rogers Pass, Montana • Jan. 20, 1954, -70 F • Michigan • Feb 9, 1934, -51 F What is the only state to never have a below zero temperature? (Hawaii, 12 F is lowest)
Record High Temperatures • Death Valley, California • July 10, 1913, 134 F • Michigan • July 13, 1936, 112 F
Temperature scales • K F C • 0 K • -40 °C/ -40 °F
Converting Temperature • K = C + 273 • F = (1.80*C) + 32 • Solve this equation for C.
Try these... • 3 °C to F • 432 K to °C • 212 F to K • 25.7 psi to mmHg • 1.5 atm to kPa • 2000 mbar to torr
C5.4A Changes of State involving Solids • Solid Liquid • Melting • Examples- other than water • Solid Vapor (gas) • Sublimation • Example: dry ice, air fresheners, freeze dried food
Behavior of Liquids • Viscosity : the measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow • Surface Tension: Inward forces that must be overcome in order to expand the surface area Cohesion: molecules sticking to each other Adhesion: forces that bind liquid to surface • Capillary Action: rise of liquid up very narrow tubes
Changes of State w/ Liquids • Liquid --> solid • freezing • Liquid --> gas • Vaporization • Evaporation: occurs are the surface of the liquid only • Vapor --> liquid • Condensation • Gas - - > solid ? • Deposition
GAS LIQUID SOLID
Equilibrium • equilibrium - no net change in a system (usually closed) • static - no net change because nothing is happening • dynamic - no net change because two opposite processes are occurring at the same rate