RECONSTRUCTION. “ Post Civil War ” 1865 -1877. What is it??. Reconstruction – The reorganization and rebuilding of the former Confederate States after the Civil War. . What were the 4 key issues. 1) What to do with secessionists Punish or welcome back 2) How to re-build the south
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RECONSTRUCTION “Post Civil War” 1865 -1877
What is it?? • Reconstruction – The reorganization and rebuilding of the former Confederate States after the Civil War.
What were the 4 key issues 1) What to do with secessionists • Punish or welcome back 2) How to re-build the south • Plantations and farms destroyed . Towns and homes were burned to the ground • http://www2.vcdh.virginia.edu/civilwar/index.php?section=Resources&page=econ 3) How to work together and act as one country
More Key Issues 4) How to help the newly freed slaves They needed: Education, land, money, laws to protect their freedom • ** All of these problems needed solutions during Reconstruction!!
Key People/Ideologies • His Reconstruction plan was reconciliation (**which means to agree and come together**) • He was willing to grant amnesty, “Saving the union was more important than punishing the South”
Farewell to Lincoln • April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth in Ford’s theater • Booth escaped and was later surrounded while hiding in a barn in Front Royal, VA • He refused to surrender and was shot and killed • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qAeFjCscRY • http://www.angelfire.com/ny5/elmiraprison/
Key People/ Ideologies • Also wanted to reconcile with the North. “We must reunite as Americans” – even though many still wanted to fight • Became president of Washington College, which is now known as Washington and Lee University
Key People/Ideologies • Fought for the adoption of Constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights for African Americans • Was a powerful voice for human rights and civil liberties
3 Key Amendments • 13th Amendment (1865) – banned slavery in the United States and all of it’s territories • 14th Amendment (1866) – grants citizenship to all persons born in the United States and guarantees them equal protection under the law
3 Key 3 Key Amendments • 15th Amendment (1869) – ensures all citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Amendment Summary *** These three amendments (13th, 14th, and 15th) guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens *** ***15th does NOT include women***
Reconstruction policies/Problems • Established Freedman’s Bureau in March 1865 • A government agency created to help the former slaves • Distributed food, clothing and medical services • Established schools and provided teachers • Aided the construction of African American Universities • Distributed land for farming and sharecropping • Provided help with employment, transportation and fair wages
Reconstruction policies/Problems • Black Codes (1865-1866) • Laws passed by the Southern states to limit the economic and physical freedom of the former slaves • “trampled the rights of African Americans” • Could be arrested and imprisoned for being unemployed • Banned from owning/renting farms • Had to work for free to pay off fines • Was slavery in disguise
Reconstruction Policies/Problems • Civil Rights Act of 1866 -Granted equal rights and full citizenship to African Americans -Authorized the use of federal troops to enforce equal rights ** Made the Black Codes illegal** http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=D1DA065A-0AB1-4202-B2A8-E5620C161A64&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
Reconstruction Policies/Problems • African Americans could hold public office for the first time • Former southern military leaders could not hold office • Northern soldiers supervised the south • Southerners resented Northern Carpetbaggers who took advantage of the south after the civil war
Reconstruction Declines • The election of 1876 was so corrupt, that neither side knew for sure who won. • Hayes(north) Vs. Tilden (South) • The election results were decided in the Compromise of 1877. *** Reconstruction ended in 1877 as a result of the Compromise to decide the outcome of the election of 1876***
Compromise of 1877was a result of the disputed 1876 Presidential election results North promised to: South promised to: Maintain all African American Rights recognize Hayes as the next President of the United States • give more aid ($) to the South • withdraw all of the remaining federaltroops • Let Southerners handle the Race issue
Jim Crow Laws • Made segregation in the South legal • Was upheld in infamous court case • Plessy Vs. Ferguson (1896) –ruled that separate but equal was ok. • Included restaurants, bathrooms, schools, churches, and even public transportation • Increased violence against African Americans and many rights gained during Reconstruction were lost
Jim Crow segregationhttp://www.amistadresource.org/plantation_to_ghetto/jim_crow.html • Discrimination – treating someone unfairly because of their race, gender, religion, place of birth, age, etc.
African American Response to Jim Crow(2 opposing views) • Booker T. Washington • Was born a slave, who had taught himself to read • Wanted to achieve equality patiently, by gaining economic power. • Believed gaining skills and education was the key to equality • W.E.B. Dubois • First African American to receive a PhD from Harvard • Demanded for the right to vote as a way to end segregation. • Believed protest was the key to equality http://www.schooltube.com/video/2c216eff5cdc4116bb26/CompareContrast-WEB-DuBois-and-Booker-T-Washington