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Communication. Management and Processes. Communication and Management. Topics Covered The Importance of Good Communication The Communication Process The Role of Perception in Communication The Dangers of Ineffective Communication Information Richness and Communication Media

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communication

Communication

Management and Processes

communication and management
Communication and Management
  • Topics Covered
    • The Importance of Good Communication
    • The Communication Process
    • The Role of Perception in Communication
    • The Dangers of Ineffective Communication
    • Information Richness and Communication Media
    • Face-to-Face Communication
    • Spoken Communication Electronically Communicated
    • Personally Addressed Written Communication
communication and management3
Communication and Management
  • Topics Covered (cont’d)
    • Impersonal Written Communication
  • Communication Networks
    • Communication Networks in Groups and Teams
    • Organizational Communication Networks
    • External Networks
  • Technological Advances in Communication
    • The Internet
    • Intranets
    • Groupware
communication and management4
Communication and Management
  • Topics Covered
  • Communication Skills for Managers
    • Communication Skills for Managers as Senders
    • Communication Skills for Managers as Receivers
    • Understanding Linguistic Styles
communication5
Communication

Communication - the evoking of a shared or common meaning in another person

Interpersonal Communication - communication between two or more people in an organization

Communicator - the person originating the message

Receiver - the person receiving a message

Perceptual Screen - a window through which we interact with people that influences the quality, accuracy, and clarity of the communication

communication6
Communication

Message - the thoughts and feelings that the communicator is attempting to elicit in the receiver

Feedback Loop - the pathway that completes two-way communication

Language - the words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used & understood by a group of people

communication7
Communication

Data - uninterpreted and unanalyzed facts

Information - data that have been interpreted, analyzed, & and have meaning to some user

Richness - the ability of a medium or channel to elicit or evoke meaning in the receiver

communication and management8
Communication and Management
  • Communication - Definition
    • The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding.
  • Importance of Good Communication
    • Increased efficiency in new technologies and skills
      • Learning, Implementing, Training
      • Expands workers skills
communication and management9
Communication and Management
  • Importance of Good Communication
    • Improved quality of products and services

Meaning and importance of quality

How to attain quality

    • Subordinates communicate problems and solutions for increasing quality to superiors
communication and management10
Communication and Management
  • Importance of Good Communication
    • Increased responsiveness to customers
      • Empowered workers lower response time to satisfy customer wants and needs
communication and management11
Communication and Management
  • Importance of Good Communication
    • More innovation through communication
      • Cross-functional teams communicating effectively produce higher quality products more efficiently
the communication process
The Communication Process
  • Phases of the Communication Process:
    • Transmission phase in which information is shared by two or more people.
    • Feedback phase in which a common understanding is assured.
the communication process13
The Communication Process
  • Phases of the Communication Process:
    • Transmission phase in which information is shared by two or more people.
  • The process starts with a sender (an individual or group) who wants to share information.
    • Senders must decide what information to share and puts the message into symbols or language (encoding).
      • Noise: anything harming the communication process
    • Once encoded the message is sent through a medium to a receiver
the communication process14
The Communication Process
  • Phases of the Communication Process:
  • The receiver interprets or decodes the message
the communication process15
The Communication Process
  • Phases of the Communication Process:
    • Feedback phase in which a common understanding is assured.
    • The receiver decides what the message means and communicates it back to the sender.
    • The original sender decodes the message and makes sure that a common understanding has been reached.
the communication process cont d
The Communication Process (cont’d)
  • Messages are transmitted over a medium to a receiver.
    • Medium: the pathway over which the message is transmitted (e.g., telephone, written note, email).
    • Receiver: the person getting the message.
      • The receiver decodes (interprets) the message, allowing the receiver to understand the message.
      • This is a critical point: failure to properly decode the message can lead to a misunderstanding.
    • Feedback by receiver informs the sender that the message is understood or that it must be re-sent.
communication issues
Communication Issues
  • Verbal Communication
    • The encoding of messages into words, either written or spoken
  • Nonverbal
    • The encoding of messages by means of facial expressions, body language, and styles of dress.
the role of perception in communication
The Role of Perception in Communication
  • Senders and receivers communicate based on their subjective perceptions.
    • Subjective perception can lead to biases and stereotypes that can interfere with effective communication.
    • Effective managers avoid communications based on biases and stereotypes.
the role of perception in communication20
The Role of Perception in Communication
  • Communication relates to senders and receivers personality, perceptions, and motivations.
    • Example: A recently promoted manager communicates with a rival for the same promotion. The rival feels that the assignment is beneath them and was given as a power play by the newly promoted manager.

The newly promoted manager feels that the rival is the only one capable of carrying out the project.

the role of perception in communication21
The Role of Perception in Communication

What is sent

What is sent

Communication method/media

Motivation

Motivation

Perception

Perception

the dangers of ineffective communication
The Dangers of Ineffective Communication
  • Managers and their subordinates can become effective communicators by:
    • Selecting an appropriate medium for each message—there is no one “best” medium.
    • Considering information richness (the amount of information a medium can carry).
      • A medium with high richness can carry much more information to aid understanding.
    • Is there a need for a paper path or electronic trail to provide documentation of the communication?
communication media
Communication Media
  • Face-to-Face
    • Has highest information richness.
    • Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals.
    • Provides for instant feedback.
      • Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with informal talks to workers.
      • Video conferences provide much of this richness and reduce travel costs and meeting times.
communication media cont d
Communication Media (cont’d)
  • Spoken Communication Electronically Transmitted
    • Has the second highest information richness.
      • Telephone conversations are information rich with tone of voice, sender’s emphasis, and quick feedback, but provide no visual nonverbal cues.
communication media cont d26
Communication Media (cont’d)
  • Personally Addressed Written Communication
    • Has a lower richness than the verbal forms of communication, but still is directed at a given person.
      • Personal addressing helps ensure receiver actually reads the message—personal letters and e-mail are common forms.
      • Does not provide instant feedback to the sender although sender may get feedback later.
      • Excellent media for complex messages requesting follow-up actions by receiver.
e mail dos and don ts
E-Mail Dos and Don’ts
  • E-mail allows telecommuting employees to work from home and keep in contact.
  • The use of e-mail is growing rapidly and e-mail etiquette is expected:
    • Typing messages in all CAPITALS is seen as “screaming” at the receiver.
    • Punctuate your messages for easy reading and don’t ramble on.
    • Pay attention to spelling and treat the message like a written letter.
communication media cont d28
Communication Media (cont’d)
  • Impersonal Written Communication
    • Has the lowest information richness.
      • Good for messages to many receivers where little or feedback is expected (e.g., newsletters, reports)
ten commandments of email
Ten Commandments of Email
  • Don’t use your inbox as a catcall for everything you need to work on. Read items once, answer them immediately, delete them if possible or move them to another folder.
  • Set up a five weeks folder that deletes automatically.
  • Use common acronyms to identify important items
  • Send group mail only when it is important to all recipients
ten commandments of email30
Ten Commandments of Email
  • Ask to be removed from distribution lists you do not need to be on.
  • To cut down on pile up, use out of office
  • Send messages that use only the subject line using EOM to signify end of message
  • Use graphics sparingly
  • Attachments over 5mb to groups are better put on company website
  • Specify important parts of the attachment Pg 17 and 20
communication networks
Communication Networks
  • Communication Networks
    • The pathways along which information flows in groups and teams and throughout the organization.
    • Choice of communication network depends on:
      • The nature of the group’s tasks
      • The extent to which group members need to communicate with each other to achieve group goals.
communication networks32
Communication Networks
  • Communication Networks

Pathways

    • Vertical
      • Manager to upper level managers
      • Manager to subordinates (direct reports)
    • Lateral
      • Manager to other managers
organization communication networks
Organization Communication Networks
  • Organization Chart
    • A pictorial representation of formal reporting channels in an organization.
      • Communication in an organization flows through formal and informal pathways
      • Vertical communications flow up and down the corporate hierarchy.
      • Horizontal communications flow between employees of the same level.
      • Informal communications can span levels and departments—the grapevine is an informal network carrying unofficial information throughout the firm.
nonverbal communication
Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal Communication - all elements of communication that do not involve words

Four basic types

  • Proxemics - an individual’s perception & use of space
  • Kinesics - study of body movements, including posture
  • Facial & Eye Behavior - movements that add cues for the receiver
  • Paralanguage - variations in speech, such as pitch, loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, & crying
proxemics territorial space

a = intimate <1.5’

b = personal 1.5-4’

a

c = social 4-12’

b

c

d = public >12’

d

Proxemics: Territorial Space

Territorial Space - bands of space extending outward from the body; territorial space differs from culture to culture

proxemics seating dynamics

X

X O

O

Communication

Cooperation

X

O X O

Non-

Communication

Competition

O

Proxemics: Seating Dynamics

Seating Dynamics - seating people in certain positions according to the person’s purpose in communication

examples of decoding nonverbal cues

He’s

unapproachable!

He’s angry! I’ll

stay out of his way!

Boss breathes heavily & waves arms

My opinion

doesn’t count

I wonder what

he’s hiding?

No eye contact while communicating

Manager sighs deeply

Examples of Decoding Nonverbal Cues

Boss fails to acknowledge employee’s greeting

new technologies for communication
New Technologies for Communication
  • Informational databases
  • Electronic mail systems
  • Voice mail systems
  • Fax machine systems
  • Cellular phone systems
technological advances in communication
Technological Advances in Communication
  • Internet
    • Global system of computer networks used by many firms use it to communicate with their suppliers.
  • World Wide Web (WWW)
    • Provides multimedia access to the Internet.
  • Intranets
    • A company-wide system of computer networks for information sharing by employees inside the firm.
technological advances in communication43
Technological Advances in Communication
  • Groupware
    • Computer software that enables members of groups and teams to share information with each other and improve communication.
      • Best used to support team-oriented working environments.
how do new technologies affect behavior
How Do New Technologies Affect Behavior?
  • Fast, immediate access to information
  • Immediate access to people in power
  • Instant information exchange across distance
  • Makes schedules & office hours irrelevant
  • May equalize group power
  • May equalize group participation
how do new technologies affect behavior45
How Do New TechnologiesAffect Behavior?
  • Communication can become more impersonal--interaction with a machine
  • Interpersonal skills may diminish--less tact, less graciousness
  • Non-verbal cues lacking
  • Alters social context
  • Easy to become overwhelmed with information
  • Encourages polyphasic activity
communication skills for managers
Communication Skills for Managers
  • Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Perceptual and attribution biases
    • Conflicting assumptions
    • Inadequate information
    • Semantics
    • Emotional Blocks
    • Nonverbal communication barriers
    • Cultural barriers
    • Inadequate communication media
    • Technological barriers
communication skills for managers47
Communication Skills for Managers
  • Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Perceptual and attribution biases

Experience is different and causes wrong interpretation – Common experiences gives common meaning

    • Conflicting assumptions

Sender assumes receiver will use the same code to decode as intended

Receiver decodes based on wrong assumptions due to inadequate background information and creates a misunderstanding

communication skills for managers48
Communication Skills for Managers
  • Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Codes of past experience
      • Facts
      • Knowledge
      • Beliefs
      • Attitudes
      • Social Roles
      • Values
      • Language
      • Memories

All blended with feelings and emotions

How many of these should overlap to decode the message

communication skills for managers49
Communication Skills for Managers
  • Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Inadequate information
      • Managers do not provide enough info to decode
communication skills for managers50
Communication Skills for Managers
  • Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Semantics – Word usage
      • You charge someone a fee for service.
      • You charge something you purchase to pay later.
      • You charge a battery.
      • You charge an official with duties to perform.
      • You charge a horse into battle.
      • You get a charge out of something funny.
      • You charge a criminal for crimes committed.
      • The navy uses a depth charge.
communication skills for managers51
Communication Skills for Managers
  • Barriers to Effective Communication

Emotional Blocks

    • Experiences have an emotional / feeling component.
      • A concert
      • Wedding Day
      • Movie
barriers to communication

Communication Barriers -

factors that block or significantly distort successful communication

Barriers to Communication
  • Physical separation
  • Status differences
  • Gender differences
  • Cultural diversity
  • Language
communication skills for managers53
Communication Skills for Managers
  • Barriers to Effective Communication

Nonverbal communication barriers

    • Body motion – gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, touching, and so forth
  • Physical characteristics – body shape, physique, posture, height,weight,hair, and skin color
  • Paralanguage – voice quality, volume, speech rate, pitch, nonfluencies such as yaa, ah or um, laughing.
    • Proxemics – ways people use and perceive space

Environment – building and room design, furniture, decorations

Time – being late or early, keeping others waiting, time v. status

communication skills for managers54
Communication Skills for Managers
  • Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Cultural barriers
      • Language, native customs, religious customs
    • Inadequate communication media
      • Use of wrong media to convey message completely
    • Technological barriers
      • Receiver does not have the ability or technological capability to decode message
communication skills for managers55
Communication Skills for Managers
  • Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Messages that are unclear, incomplete, difficult to understand
    • Messages sent over the an inappropriate medium
    • Messages with no provision for feedback
    • Messages that are received but ignored
    • Messages that are misunderstood
    • Messages delivered through automated systems that lack the human element
communication skills for managers56
Communication Skills for Managers
  • Managers as Senders
    • Send clear and complete messages.
    • Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands.
    • Select a medium appropriate for the message and, importantly, one that is monitored by the receiver.
    • Avoid filtering (holding back information) and distortion as the message passes through other workers.
    • Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in the message.
    • Provide accurate information to avoid rumors.
communication skills for managers57
Communication Skills For Managers
  • Managers as Receivers
    • Pay attention to what is sent as a message.
    • Be a good listener: don’t interrupt.
    • Ask questions to clarify your understanding.
    • Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels.
    • Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently.
    • Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication.
      • This is particularly true across cultures and managers should expect and plan for this.
basic interpersonal communication model

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Perceptual screens

Perceptual screens

Influence message quality, accuracy, clarityInclude age, gender, values, beliefs, culture, experiences, needs

Basic Interpersonal Communication Model

Event X

Communicator

Receiver

  • Message
  • Context
  • Affect
reflective listening

This complex process needs to be divided to be understood

What I heard you say was we will understand the process better if we break it into steps

Reflective Listening

Reflective Listening - the skill of listening carefully to another person and repeating back to the speaker the heard message to correct any inaccuracies or misunderstandings

reflective listening60
Reflective Listening
  • Emphasizes receiver’s role
  • Helps the receiver & communicator clearly & fully understand the message sent
  • Useful in problem solving
reflective listening61
Reflective Listening

Reflective listening emphasizes

  • the personal elements of the communication process
  • the feelings communicated in the message
  • responding to the communicator, not leading the communicator
  • the role or receiver or audience
  • understanding people by reducing perceptual distortions and interpersonal barriers
reflective listening 4 levels of verbal response

Affirm contact

Paraphrase the expressed

Clarify the implicit

Reflect “core” feelings

Reflective Listening: 4 Levels of Verbal Response
one way vs two way communications

One-Way Communication - a person sends a message to another person and no questions, feedback, or interaction follow

  • Good for giving simple directions
  • Fast but often less accurate than 2-way communication

Two-Way Communication - the communicator & receiver interact

  • Good for problem solving
One-way vs. Two-way Communications
five keys to effective supervisory communication
Five Keys to Effective Supervisory Communication
  • Expressive speaking
  • Empathetic listening
  • Persuasive leadership
  • Sensitivity to feelings
  • Informative management
defensive communication
Defensive Communication - communication that can be aggressive, attacking & angry, or passive & withdrawing

Leads to

injured feelings

communication breakdowns

alienation

retaliatory behaviors

nonproductive efforts

problem solving failures

Defensive Communication
non defensive communication
Non-defensive Communication

Non-defensive Communication - communication that is assertive, direct, & powerful

Provides

  • basis for defense when attacked
  • restores order, balance, and effectiveness
two defensiveness patterns

Subordinate Defensiveness - characterized by passive, submissive, withdrawing behavior

Dominant Defensiveness - characterized by active, aggressive, attacking behavior

Two Defensiveness Patterns
non defensive communication a powerful tool
Non-defensive Communication: A Powerful Tool
  • Speaker seen as centered, assertive, controlled, informative, realistic, and honest
  • Speaker exhibits self-control & self possession
  • Listener feels accepted rather than rejected
  • Catherine Crier’s rules to nondefensive communication
    • Define the situation
    • Clarify the person’s position
    • Acknowledge the person’s feelings
    • Bring the focus back to the facts
tips for effective communication

Provide

social

interaction

opportunities

Is the

message

really

necessary?

Regularly

disconnect

from the

technology

Provide

social

interaction

opportunities

Don’t

assume

immediate

response

Strive for

message

completeness

Build in

feedback

opportunities

Tips for Effective Communication