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The End of Reconstruction. SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918

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The end of reconstruction

The End of Reconstruction


The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918

Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on GA during this period.

Analyze how rights were denied to African-Americans through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence.

Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns Hope, and Alonzo Herndon.

Explain reasons for World War I and describe Georgia’s contributions.

End of republican rule in georgia
End of Republican Rule in Georgia

  • In 1868, the Republican Party gained control of the Georgia government.

  • Rufus B. Bullock was elected governor. Bullock

    • wanted equal rights for African Americans.

  • Most Democrats in GA did not.

    • A campaign began to remove the Republicans from power.

    • During this time, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) attacked many African Americans in Georgia.

End of republican rule in georgia1
End of Republican Rule in Georgia

  • In 1870, federal troops withdrew from GA and the Democrats regained control of the Georgia government.

  • The Republican Party was referred to as the Party of Lincoln, and southern states associated it with anti-South policies.

Bourbon triumvirate
Bourbon Triumvirate

  • Bourbon Democrats

    • conservative Democrats

    • controlled the Georgia government from 1872 to 1890.

  • The Bourbon Triumvirate led the Bourbon Democrats.

Bourbon triumvirate1
Bourbon Triumvirate

  • The Bourbon Triumvirate were Alfred Colquitt, Joseph Brown, and John Gordon.

  • wanted Georgia’s economy to be industrialized, not based solely on agriculture.

  • During their time in power, the cotton textile industry grew.

  • Production of cottonseed oil, cattle feed, and fertilizer began.

  • Atlanta became prosperous again.

Henry grady
Henry Grady

  • Henry Grady was ajournalistfrom Georgia.

    • called the “voice of the New South”

    • He coined the phrase “New South”

    • Increased the circulation of the Atlanta Constitution from 10,000 to 140,000

Henry grady1
Henry Grady

  • He helped bring jobs, recognition, and investments to the recovering GA economy

  • Grady spoke about unity and trust between the North and South.

International cotton exposition
International Cotton Exposition

  • The International Cotton Exposition was held in Atlanta, in 1881.

    • was a fair to showcase the economic recovery of the South and to lure northern investors

    • displayed equipment for making textiles.

    • millions of dollars were invested in Atlanta.

    • Created new jobs.

    • Similar expositions would be held there in 1887 and 1895.

    • Atlanta became known as the center of the New South.

Tom watson and the populists
Tom Watson and the Populists

  • He was awealthy man concerned about Georgia’s poor and struggling farmers.

  • Small farmers in Georgia were upset because they were not prospering during this time.

  • Prices of farm products were dropping.

  • Farmers owed many loans and were charged high prices by railways to ship products.

  • Farmers formed groups to help one another.

Tom watson and the populists1
Tom Watson and the Populists

  • The formation of these groups/alliances was called populism.

    • The Farmers’ Alliance was one of these groups.

    • these groups formed a political party called the People’s Party.

  • Thomas Watsonwas a leader of the populists.

    • Under Watson’s leadership, the People’s Party became powerful in Georgia.

  • The Democrats worried that the People’s Party might take control. To avoid this, the Democrats won the election by breaking the law, or “stealing” the election.

Rebecca latimer felton
Rebecca Latimer Felton

  • Rebecca Latimer Felton was a writer, teacher, and reformer.

    • She was an early supporter of women’s suffrage, the right to vote.

    • She made speeches and wrote articles to help women win the right to vote.

    • She pushed social reform at the state level.

Rebecca latimer felton1
Rebecca Latimer Felton

  • helped to instate Prohibition

  • ended the convict lease system, a system of leasing convicts to private businesses as cheap labor.

  • In 1922 at the age of 87, Felton becamethe 1st woman to serve in the U.S. Senate.

Leo frank case
Leo Frank Case

  • Leo Frank was a Jewish man from Georgia who was lynched, or hung, by a mob because of anti-Semitism.

    • Frank was accused of murdering Mary Phagan, a young girl employee.

    • The governor of Georgia, John Slaton, reviewed Frank’s case and eventually decided that Frank was innocent.

Leo frank case1
Leo Frank Case

  • However, anti-Semites lynched Frank before he could enjoy his freedom.

  • Anti-Semitism - a belief system against Jewish people.

Jim crow laws
Jim Crow Laws

  • The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments increased the rights of African Americans after the Civil War.

  • When formerly Confederate states rejoined the Union, they had to first agree to honor the amendments.

Jim crow laws1
Jim Crow Laws

  • Most, however, only followed the Thirteenth Amendment – no more slavery.

  • The southern states did not honor the other Amendments because they feared equal rights for African Americans.

  • Southern states regularly denied rights to African Americans.

Jim crow laws2
Jim Crow Laws

  • Georgia and other southern states passed state and local legislation called Jim Crow laws.

  • Jim Crow laws mandated the segregation of African Americans and whites.

    • Signs were hung in public places designating “Whites Only” for some public places and “Colored Only” for others.

Plessy v ferguson
Plessy V. Ferguson

  • Some African Americans challenged the Jim Crow laws in court.

  • The most famous challenge was between Homer Plessy and a railroad company in Louisiana.

  • The company tried to make Plessy move from a “Whites Only” passenger car. Plessy, however, refused and was arrested.

Plessy v ferguson1
Plessy V. Ferguson

  • In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court disagreed with Plessy.

  • The court ruled that segregation was not against the Constitution.

  • This idea became known as “separate but equal,” which meant that it was legal for states to keep the races separate as long as there were equal facilities for both races.

    • Most public facilities, however, such as hospitals and schools, were not of the same quality for African Americans as those for whites.


  • Disenfranchisement - the act of denying a person the right to vote

    • Disenfranchisement of African American men was accomplished partly by poll taxes, property tests, and literacy tests. A poll tax was a fee that a voter had to pay to vote. A voter also had to demonstrate that he owned property.


  • Formerly enslaved men were given the right to vote by the Fifteenth Amendment.

  • Many southern whites felt this right was a threat to their way of life.

  • Southern states made it more difficult for African American men to vote.

  • Poll taxes and property tests prevented many poor people, including African Americans, from voting.


  • In order to vote, people were required to pass a literacy test, which determined their ability to read and write.

    • Most African Americans could not pass this test because under slavery, they had not been allowed to learn to read and write.

  • These laws also prevented poor, uneducated whites from voting.


  • Southern lawmakers did not want to lose the votes of whites.

  • They passed a law called the grandfather clause.

    • The grandfather clause stated that if a person had an ancestor who could vote before 1867, he will be allowed to vote.

      • Since 1867 was the first year that African Americans were allowed to vote, the grandfather clause only helped whites.


  • White primaries also denied African American men the right to vote.

    • A primary is an initial election when the voters of a political party nominate candidates.

      • In many states, the Democratic Party would not allow African Americans to be members.

County unit system
County Unit System

  • In 1917, Georgia established the county unit system. This was a way togive votes in primary elections.

    • Each county was given a certain number of votes, called unit votes.

    • Three categories: urban, town, and rural.

County unit system1
County Unit System

  • The candidate who received the most votes in a county won all of the unit votes given to that county.

  • This system did not always represent what the population wanted.

  • As a result, the county unit system was eventually abolished.

Racial violence
Racial Violence

  • Race riots and the terrorist activities of the KKK increased at this time. As African Americans gained more power, whites reacted with fear and violence. Often, whites would attack African Americans in groups, such as in the race riots in Atlanta in 1906. Such events occurred throughout the South. This violence continued for decades, with lynching becoming an increasingly common event throughout the South. Not until the civil rights movement of the 1960s, would violence against African Americans slow in the region.

Civil rights advocates
Civil Rights Advocates

  • During the years between 1877 and 1918, many significant changes in civil rights took place in the state of Georgia. Many civil rights advocates of this period were educators, however, businesspeople also played a role. In the approximately fifty years following the Civil War, colleges in Georgia had begun to serve African Americans. The availability of education for former slaves was a great advance in civil rights.

Booker t washington
Booker T. Washington

  • (1856-1915)

  • Was born into slavery.

  • Grew up during Reconstruction

  • Educated by a freedmen’s school.

  • Championed education for other African Americans.

  • In 1881 Washington headed the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.

    • a college that prepared African Americans for agricultural and domestic work.

Booker t washington cont
Booker T. Washington (cont.)

  • Became a well known educator and thinker.

  • Explained the idea of accommodationism (blacks and whites work separately for a mutually beneficial relationship) at the 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta.

    • He encouraged African Americans to embrace jobs in agriculture, mechanics, commerce, and domestic service.

    • Believed seeking social equality was a mistake.

    • Believed progress would come gradually (should not be forced).

Booker t washington cont1
Booker T. Washington (cont.)

  • called for whites to take the initiative in improving social and economic relations between the races.

  • His ideas of shared responsibility and the importance of education over equality came to be known as the Atlanta Compromise.

W e b du bois
W.E.B Du Bois

  • (1868-1963)

  • A prominent professor at Atlanta University in 1897.

  • Criticized the idea of accommodationism.

    • Believed the idea accepted the racism of whites.

  • Thought Blacks should fight for total racial equality.

W e b du bois1
W.E.B Du Bois

  • Founded the Niagra Movement.

    • Civil Rights Activists gathered at Niagra Falls and listed demands, which included the end of segregation and discrimination.

W e b du bois2
W.E.B Du Bois

  • Activists of the Niagra Movement founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

  • Du Bois took a leadership position with the NAACP.




Headed the Tuskegee Institute. Believed in accommodationism. Encouraged Blacks to embrace domestic jobs (i.e. agriculture, mechanics, etc.). Believed progress should be gradual. Believed in shared responsibilities for Whites and Blacks in improving social and economic relations. Gave the Atlanta Compromise speech.

A professor at Atlanta University. Disagreed with accommodationism. Thought Blacks should fights for total social equality. Founded the Niagra Movement which sought to end discrimination and segregation. A prominent leader/member of the NAACP.

Both were civil rights activists who fought to educate African Americans and advance African American rights. Both were prominent educators at major universities.

Booker T. Washington

W.E.B Du Bois

John and lugenia hope
John and Lugenia Hope

  • John and Lugenia Burns Hope devoted their time advancing civil rights and education for African Americans.

  • John Hope

    • became the first African American president of Morehouse College in 1906.

    • became the first African American president of Atlanta University.

      • Atlanta University became the first college in the nation to offer graduate education for African Americans.

    • supported public education, healthcare, job opportunities, and recreational facilities for African Americans.

John and lugenia hope1
John and Lugenia Hope

  • Lugenia Hope:

    • Worked for many organizations to assist African Americans in GA.

    • created the first woman-run social welfare agency for African Americans in GA.

    • was a member of the National Association of Colored Women (NACW).

World war i
World War I

  • In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated by Serbian nationalists. Soon after, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Within a few months, the allies of these countries had joined the war. World War I had begun.

  • There were several causes for World War I. These included ethnic and ideological conflicts, nationalism, and political and economic rivalries.

World war i1
World War I

Franz Ferdinand

Gavrilo Princip

World war i2
World War I

  • Ethnic Conflicts:

    • An ethnic group is a group of people that shares a common and distinctive culture. Usually, they also share the same language and religion. Ethnic Conflicts are often the cause of wars.

  • A major ethnic conflict existed in what was called the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

    • This large empire consisted of many ethnic groups, but only the Austrians and the Hungarians had the right to vote.

World war i3
World War I

  • Ideological Conflicts:

  • An ideology is a system of ideas that guides individuals, social movements, or groups of people.

    • weltpolitik is a German word that means “world politics.” The Germans believed they deserved to be equal partners with other leading world powers such as Great Britain.

      • Germany had conflicts with all the other major European powers except Austria-Hungary

World war i4
World War I

  • Nationalism:

    • devotion and loyalty to one’s own ethnicity or country of origin.

World war i5
World War I

  • In the 19th century, many nationalist movements led to a widespread struggle for independence. This was especially true in the Balkans. Serbia was at the center of the nationalist movements in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary was considered an enemy of Serbia because of the desire of the Serbs in Austria-Hungary to unite with Serbia and create a larger Serbian state.

Georgia s contributions to wwi
Georgia’s Contributions to WWI

  • Soldiers from many states came to Georgia to receive military training at Camp Benning, Camp Gordon and Fort McPherson.

  • Textile mills made fabrics for military uniforms.

  • Railroads carried arms, ammunition and soldiers to ports where ships set sail to Europe.

Georgia s contributions to wwi1
Georgia’s Contributions to WWI

  • Many residents planted “victory gardens” to raise their own vegetable so that there would be more food for soldiers & military.

  • Women volunteered to work for the Red Cross, to welcome soldiers, to knit and sell war bonds.

  • 3,000 young people from Georgia died in World War I.

Georgia s contributions to wwi2
Georgia’s Contributions to WWI

  • The entry of the United States into the was helped to defeat the Central Powers and end the war.

  • On November 11, 1918 the war officially ended when both sides signed an armistice.

  • Armistice: an agreement to stop fighting.