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unit 5 the new south the end of reconstruction

Unit 5: The New South:The End of Reconstruction

SS8H7.a Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on Georgia during this period

end of republican rule in georgia
End of Republican Rule in Georgia

In 1868, the Republican party gained control of the GA government

Rufus B. Bullock was elected governor; wanted equal rights for African Americans

In 1870, the Democrats regained control of Georgia’s government

bourbon triumvirate
Bourbon Triumvirate

From 1872 to 1890

Alfred Colquitt, Joseph Brown, and John Gordon

Wanted Georgia’s economy to be industrialized, not based solely on agriculture

The cotton textile industry grew (production cottonseed oil, cattle feed, and fertilizer)

henry grady
Henry Grady

Journalist from Georgia who was called the “Spokesman of the New South.”

promoted industry and crop diversification as a means to help the economy in Georgia

Spoke about unity and trust between the North and South

international cotton exposition
International Cotton Exposition

Held in Atlanta in 1881

A fair to bring money to Atlanta’s cotton textile business

Sugar, rice, and tobacco were shown also

Atlanta became known as the center of the New South

thomas watson and the populists
Thomas Watson and the Populists

A political party formed in Georgia

Upset b/c they were not prospering due to high railway fees and expensive loans

Led by Thomas Watson (became more powerful than the Democrats)

rebecca latimer felton
Rebecca Latimer Felton

A writer, teacher, and reformer

Supporter of women’s suffrage, the right to vote

Helped women win the right to vote

At age 87, she became the first woman to serve in the U.S. Senate in 1922

the 1906 atlanta riot
The 1906 Atlanta Riot

A string of violent events by whites against African Americans

Dozens of African Americans were killed and many more were wounded

Began because of stories of African American men attacking white women

Tension increased because of competition between African Americans and whites for jobs

Whites were worried that the African American upper class was becoming too powerful

leo frank case
Leo Frank Case

Leo Frank was a Jewish man from Georgia who was lynched by a mob because of anti-Semitism (a belief system against Jewish people)

Accused of murdering a young girl employee

The governor of GA, John Slaton, reviewed Frank’s case and decided he was innocent

county unit system
County Unit System

Established in 1917

Way of giving votes in primary elections

Unit votes: certain number of votes given to each county

Counties divided in three categories: urban, town, and rural

County system was eventually abolished

jim crow south
Jim Crow South

The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments increased the rights of African Americans after the Civil War

jim crow laws
Jim Crow Laws

Mandated the segregation of African Americans and whites

plessy v ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson

Homer Plessy and a railroad company in Louisiana

The court ruled that segregation was not against the Constitution a.k.a. “separate but equal”

  • The act of denying a person the right to vote
    • Accomplished by poll taxes, property tests, and literacy tests
  • Racial Violence
    • Race riots and KKK violence
civil rights advocates
Civil Rights Advocates
  • Booker T. Washington
  • A man who was born into slavery, raised during the Reconstruction Period, and was educated in a Freedmen’s Bureau School
  • He felt racial equality for blacks would come gradually and for the time being African Americans should embrace and take pride in common jobs such as mechanics and farming
  • He delivered a famous speech known as the Atlanta Compromise
civil rights advocates1
Civil Rights Advocates
  • W.E.B. Du Bois
  • He did not agree with accomodationism
  • Was not satisfied with racial equality coming gradually
  • Founded the Niagara Movement
  • Wrote a book called The Souls of Black Folk
civil rights advocates2
Civil Rights Advocates
  • John and Lugenia Burns Hope
  • Black educators that played a role in Civil Rights for African Americans
  • Helped educated Black people
  • He was president of Morehouse College in Atlanta
civil rights advocates3
Civil Rights Advocates
  • Alonzo Herndon
    • Owned many barbershops throughout Atlanta
    • Owned the Atlanta Life Insurance Company
    • An entrepreneur and civil rights leader
world war i
World War I

Causes included ethnic and ideological conflicts, nationalism, and political and economic rivalries

world war i1
World War I

Ethnic group is a group of people that shares a common and distinctive culture

An ideology is a system of ideas that guides individuals, social movements, or groups of people

Nationalism is devotion and loyalty to one’s own ethnic background or country of origin

georgia s contributions during wwi
Georgia’s Contributions during WWI

America declared war on April 6, 1917

Over 100,000 Georgian men and women contributed to the Allied victory

Georgia was a key state for the U.S. military

Georgia had more military training camps than any other state in the country (over 12); the largest was Camp Gordon completed in 1917 and was located in Chamblee, GA

Camp Gordon trained a famous division of soldiers known as the Eighty-second All-American Division

**WWI was the first war that used airplanes as weapons

drought and the great depression
Drought and the Great Depression

Cotton has always been an important crop in Georgia

The boll weevil is a small beetle that puncture cotton buds and destroys the crop; insecticides cannot kill boll weevils

drought and the great depression1
Drought and the Great Depression

Droughts and a combination of exhausted soil from overuse and the boll weevil forced many farmers to leave their farms

the great depression
The Great Depression

When the economy is at a high point, it is called a peak

A low point in the economy is called a trough

When a trough is extreme, the economy is said to be in a depression

during times of depression, unemployment is high and people cannot afford many goods and services

the great depression1
The Great Depression

Worst depression in the United States occurred in the 1930s

The era preceding the depression is known as the Roaring Twenties

the stock market crash
The Stock Market Crash

October 29, 1929

A.k.a “Black Tuesday”

The period of over 10 years in which the economy was slow, unemployment was high and everyone suffered in known as the Great Depression

eugene talmadge
Eugene Talmadge

Began his career as the Commissioner of Agriculture for the state of Georgia

Was elected as governor of Georgia for 4 terms; died before he could serve the 4th term

Overruled state legislature by invoking an executive order

An executive order is an act by a governor or president that does not have to be approved by legislature

the new deal
The New Deal

Herbert Hoover was president at the beginning of the Great Depression

President Franklin D. Roosevelt set up a national plan called the New Deal in 1933

The New Deal was an attempt at fixing the economy

agricultural adjustment administration aaa
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)

The purpose of the act was to raise the price of staple crops by limiting supply

rural electrification administration rea
Rural Electrification Administration (REA)

Created in 1935; signed in 1936

Created an agency that provided loans to states; the loans were to improve electric service to rural areas

civilian conservation corps ccc
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

Was a New Deal relief program that created jobs for thousands of young men, most of who were veterans of World War I

works progress administration wpa
Works Progress Administration (WPA)

Created in 1935

Provided jobs for people

Largest relief program in U.S. history

social security act
Social Security Act
  • Passed by Congress in 1935
  • Provided two social insurance programs
    • The first was a system of old-age benefits for retiring workers, which would support them monetarily when they could no longer work
    • Offered insurance for the unemployed and disabled
the new deal1
The New Deal

The New Deal gave those who suffered the most during the Depression security and power.