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Managing Groups and Teams. Module 13 LIS 580: Spring 2006 Instructor- Michael Crandall. Roadmap. Groups and teams Characteristics of teams Reasons for team failure Leading teams Improving team performance. Groups and Teams. Group

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managing groups and teams

Managing Groups and Teams

Module 13

LIS 580: Spring 2006

Instructor- Michael Crandall

roadmap
Roadmap
  • Groups and teams
  • Characteristics of teams
  • Reasons for team failure
  • Leading teams
  • Improving team performance

LIS580- Spring 2006

groups and teams
Groups and Teams
  • Group
    • Two or more persons who are interacting in such a way that each person influences and is influenced by each other person.
  • Team
    • A group of people committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which the team members hold themselves mutually accountable.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

comparing work teams and work groups
Comparing Work Teams andWork Groups

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

the popularity of teams
The Popularity of Teams
  • Teams typically outperform individuals when tasks require multiple skills, judgment, and experience
  • Teams are a better way to utilize individual employee talents
  • The flexibility and responsiveness of teams is essential in a changing environment
  • Empowered teams increase job satisfaction and morale, enhance employee involvement, and promote workforce diversity

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

types of work teams
Types of Work Teams

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

virtual team
Virtual Team
  • Virtual Team
    • Groups of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who interact using a combination of telecommunications and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task.
    • Virtual teams may be temporary, existing only to accomplish a specific task. Or they may be permanent and address ongoing matters.
    • Membership is often fluid, evolving according to changing task requirements.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

group dynamics
Group Dynamics
  • Group Norms
    • The informal rules that groups adopt to regulate and regularize group members’ behavior.
  • Group Cohesiveness
    • The degree of interpersonal attractiveness within a group, dependent on factors like proximity, similarities, attraction among the individual group members, group size, intergroup competition, and agreement about goals.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

what it takes to be a team player
What It Takes to Be a Team Player
  • Personality
    • Individualism versus collectivism
  • Interpersonal Skills
    • Conflict management skills
    • Collaborative problem solving skills
    • Communication skills
  • Management Skills
    • Develop and establish goals
    • Control, monitor, provide feedback
    • Set work roles and assign tasks

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

team member roles
Team Member Roles

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

challenges to creating team players
Challenges to Creating TeamPlayers
  • Managers attempting to introduce teams into organization face the most difficulty:
    • When individual employee resistance to teams is strong
    • Where the national culture is individualistic rather than collectivist
    • When an established organization places

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

workforce diversity s effects on teams
Workforce Diversity’sEffects on Teams
  • Fresh and multiple perspectives on issues help the team identify creative or unique solutions and avoid weak alternatives
  • The difficulty of working together may make it harder to unify a diverse team and reach agreements
  • Although diversity’s advantages dissipate with time, the added-value of diverse teams increases as the team becomes more cohesive

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

checklist 13 1 how to build a productive team
Checklist 13.1How to Build a Productive Team
  • Have clear mission/purpose.
  • Set specific performance goals.
  • Compose the right team size and mix.
  • Have an agreed-upon structure appropriate to the task.
  • Delegate the authority to make the decisions needed, given their mission.
  • Provide access to or control of the resources needed to complete their mission.
  • Offer a mix of group and individual rewards.
  • Foster longevity and stability of membership.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

characteristics of high performing work teams
Characteristics of High-performing Work Teams

LIS580- Spring 2006

Prentice Hall, 2002

why teams fail the leadership focus and capability pyramid
Why Teams Fail: The Leadership, Focus, and Capability Pyramid

Source: Adapted from Steven Rayner, “Team Traps: What They Are, How to Avoid Them.”National Productivity Review. Summer 1996, p. 107. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

FIGURE 13–3

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

checklist 13 2 symptoms of unproductive teams
Checklist 13.2Symptoms of Unproductive Teams
  • Nonaccomplishment of goals.
  • Cautious, guarded communication.
  • Lack of disagreement.
  • Malfunctioning meetings.
  • Conflict within the team.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

the challenge of team leadership
The Challenge of TeamLeadership
  • Becoming an effective team leader requires:
    • Learning to share information
    • Developing the ability to trust others
    • Learning to give up authority
    • Knowing when to leave their teams alone and when to intercede
  • New roles that team leaders take on
    • Managing the team’s external boundary
    • Facilitating the team process

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

leading productive teams
Team Leader Skills

Coaching, not bossing

Help define, analyze, and solve problems

Encourage participation by others

Serve as a facilitator

Team Leader Values

Respecting fellow team members

Trusting fellow team members

Putting the team first

Leading Productive Teams

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

team leader roles
Team Leader Roles

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

team leader behaviors
Team Leader Behaviors

Druskat, V.U. & J.V. Wheeler. (2004). How to Lead a Self-Managing Team

LIS580- Spring 2006

typical leader transition problems
Typical Leader Transition Problems
  • Perceived Loss of Power or Status
  • Unclear Team Leader Roles
  • Job Security Concerns
  • The Double Standard Problem

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

stages of team development
Stages of Team Development

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

the leader s role in creating a self managing team
The Leader’s Role in Creating a Self-Managing Team
  • Forming
    • The teams and their leaders begin working out their specific responsibilities.
    • Training is the leader’s main task.
  • Storming
    • Questions typically arise regarding who is leading the team and what its structure and purpose should be.
    • The leader ensures that team members continue to learn and eventually exercise leadership skills.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

the leader s role in creating a self managing team cont d
The Leader’s Role in Creating a Self-Managing Team (cont’d)
  • Norming
    • Team members agree on purpose, structure, and leadership and are prepared to start performing.
    • The leader’s job is to emphasize the need for the team to temper cooperation with the responsibility to supervise its own members.
  • Performing
    • A period of productivity, achievement, and pride as the team members work together to get the job done.
  • Adjourning

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

how to improve team performance
Select members for skill and teamwork.

Establish challenging performance standards.

Emphasize the task’s importance.

Assign whole tasks.

Send the right signals.

Encourage social support.

Make sure there are unambiguous team rules.

Challenge the group regularly with fresh facts and information.

Train and cross-train.

Provide the necessary tools and material support.

Encourage “emotionally intelligent” team behavior.

How to Improve Team Performance

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

providing an organizational context that supports teams

OrganizationalStructure

OrganizationalSystems

Organizational Policies

EmployeeSkills

Providing an Organizational ContextThat Supports Teams

Team WorkApproach

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

designing organizations to manage teams
Designing Organizations to Manage Teams

Source: Adapted from James H. Shonk, Team-Based Organizations (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1997), p. 36.

FIGURE 13–5

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

pros and cons of group decision making
Pros

More points of view

More ways to define the problem

More possible solutions/alternatives

More creative decisions

Stronger commitment to decisions

Cons

More disagreement and less problem solving

Desire for consensus (groupthink)

Domination by a single individual

Less of commitment to the group decision

Pros and Cons of Group Decision Making

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

signs that groupthink may be a problem
Signs That Groupthink May Be a Problem

Source: Adapted from information provided in Irving James, Group Think: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascos, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982).

FIGURE 13–7

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

improving group decision making
Improving Group Decision Making
  • Devil’s-Advocate Approach
    • The group appoints a person to prepare a detailed counterargument that lists what is wrong with the group’s favored solution and why the group should not adopt it.
    • The aim is to ensure

a full and objective

consideration of the

solution proposal.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

improving group decision making cont d
Improving Group Decision Making (cont’d)
  • Brainstorming
    • A creativity-stimulating technique in which prior judgments and criticisms are specifically forbidden from being expressed and thus inhibiting the free flow of ideas, which are encouraged.
    • Brainstorming rules:
      • Avoid criticizing others’ ideas until all suggestions are out on the table.
      • Share even wild suggestions.
      • Offer many suggestions and comments as possible.
      • Build on others’ suggestions to create your own.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

improving group decision making cont d32
Improving Group Decision Making (cont’d)
  • The Delphi Technique
    • A multistage group decision-making process aimed at eliminating inhibitions or groupthink through obtaining the written opinions of experts working independently.
    • Process steps
      • Identify the problem.
      • Solicit the experts’ individual opinions on the problem.
      • Analyze, distill, and then resubmit these opinions to other experts.
      • Continue this process for several more rounds until the experts reach a consensus.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

improving group decision making cont d33
Improving Group Decision Making (cont’d)
  • The Nominal Group Technique
    • Each group member writes down his or her ideas for solving the problem at hand.
    • Each member then presents his or her ideas orally, and the person writes the ideas on a board for other participants to see.
    • After all ideas are presented, the entire group discusses all ideas simultaneously.
    • Group members individually and secretly vote on each proposed solution.
    • The solution with the most individual votes wins.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

improving group decision making cont d34
Improving Group Decision Making (cont’d)
  • The Stepladder Technique
    • Individuals A and B are given a problem to solve, and each produces an independent solution.
    • A and B develop a joint decision, and meet with C, who has analyzed the problem and arrived at a decision.
    • A, B, and C discuss the problem and arrive at a consensus decision, and are joined by D, who has analyzed the problem and arrived at a decision.
    • A, B, C, and D jointly develop a final group decision.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

improving group decision making cont d35
Improving Group Decision Making (cont’d)
  • How to Lead a Group Decision-Making Discussion
    • See that all group members participate and contribute.
    • Distinguish between idea getting and idea evaluation.
    • Do not respond to each participant or dominate the discussion.
    • Direct the group’s effort toward overcoming surmountable obstacles.
    • Don’t sit down.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

next time
Next Time
  • Guest Lecturer:
    • Martha Choe, Director of Global Libraries Program, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
    • Read the articles, and come prepared to discuss library leadership issues

LIS580- Spring 2006