Types of Groups Practical • Functional • Created to achieve an org objective • Unspecified timeframe • Informal (Interest) • Created by own members • Unspecified timeframe • Task Force • Created by organization with specific goal • Specific timeframe
The Stages of Group Formation Theory • FORMING: • Members get acquainted, test interpersonal behaviors. • STORMING: • Members develop group structure and patterns of interaction. • NORMING: • Members share acceptance of roles, sense of unity. • PERFORMING: • Members enact roles, direct effort toward goal attainment and performance.
Stages of Team Development • Four stages • Forming • Storming • Norming • Performing • All groups go through these • For new groups, find a way to get through it quickly • E.g. small project first
Team Characteristics • Roles • Everyone plays a role • Role ambiguity • Unclear directions • Role conflict • Asked to achieve conflicting goals from different sources • Role overload • Expectations exceed ability
Behavioral Norms • Norms • Standard of behavior for the group • Often a culture thing • Norm generalization • Rules of one group do or do not apply to another group • Norm variation • Variation among group members • Norm conformity • Members tend to adhere to the norms
Positive factors Intergroup competition Personal attraction Favorable evaluation Agreement on goals Positive interactions Negative factors Group size Disagreement on goals Intragroup competition Domination Bad experiences Team Cohesiveness
Managing Conflict Practice • Stimulating conflict • Increase competition • Hire outsiders • Change established procedures • Controlling conflict • Expand resource base • Enhance coordination of interdependence • Set supra-ordinate goals • Match personalities and work
Avoid conflict Convince conflicting parties to compromise. Bring conflicting parties together to confront and negotiate conflict. Collaboration (new approaches) Resolving and Eliminating Conflict