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Understanding Groups and Teams. Chapter 15. L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Understanding Groups Define the different types of groups. Describe the five stages of group development. Explaining Work Group Behavior

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understanding groups and teams

Understanding Groups and Teams

Chapter15

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

l e a r n i n g o u t l i n e follow this learning outline as you read and study this chapter
L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.

Understanding Groups

  • Define the different types of groups.
  • Describe the five stages of group development.

Explaining Work Group Behavior

  • Explain the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction.
  • Discuss how roles, norms, conformity, status systems, group size, and group cohesiveness influence group behavior.
  • Explain how group norms can both help and hurt an organization.
  • Define groupthink and social loafing.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

slide3
L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.

Explaining Work Group Behavior (cont’d)

  • Describe the relationships between group cohesiveness and productivity.
  • Discuss how conflict management influences group behavior.
  • Tell the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making.

Creating Effective Teams

  • Compare groups and teams.
  • Explain why teams have become so popular in organizations.
  • Describe the four most common types of teams.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

slide4
L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.

Creating Effective Teams (cont’d)

  • List the characteristics of effective teams.

Current Challenges in Managing Teams

  • Discuss the challenges of managing global teams
  • Explain the role of informal (social) networks in managing teams.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

understanding groups
Understanding Groups
  • Group
    • Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals.
    • Formal groups
      • Work groups defined by the organization’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasks.
        • Appropriate behaviors are defined by and directed toward organizational goals.
    • Informal groups
      • Groups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 1 examples of formal groups
Exhibit 15–1 Examples of Formal Groups
  • Command Groups
    • Groups that are determined by the organization chart and composed of individuals who report directly to a given manager.
  • Task Groups
    • Groups composed of individuals brought together to complete a specific job task; their existence is often temporary because once the task is completed, the group disbands.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 1 examples of formal groups cont d
Exhibit 15–1 Examples of Formal Groups (cont’d)
  • Cross-Functional Teams
    • Groups that bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas or groups whose members have been trained to do each others’ jobs.
  • Self-Managed Teams
    • Groups that are essentially independent and in addition to their own tasks, take on traditional responsibilities such as hiring, planning and scheduling, and performance evaluations.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

stages in group development
Forming

Members join and begin the process of defining the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership.

Storming

Intragroup conflict occurs as individuals resist control by the group and disagree over leadership.

Norming

Close relationships develop as the group becomes cohesive and establishes its norms for acceptable behavior.

Performing

A fully functional group structure allows the group to focus on performing the task at hand.

Adjourning

The group prepares to disband and is no longer concerned with high levels of performance.

Stages in Group Development

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 2 stages of group development
Exhibit 15–2 Stages of Group Development

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 3 group behavior model
Exhibit 15–3 Group Behavior Model

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

work group behavior
Work Group Behavior
  • Internal Variables Affecting Group Behavior
    • The individual abilities of the group’s members
    • The size of the group
    • The level of conflict
    • The internal pressures on members to conform to the group’s norms

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

conditions affecting group behavior
External (Organizational) Conditions

Overall strategy

Authority structures

Formal regulations

Available organizational resources

Employee selection criteria

Performance management (appraisal) system

Organizational culture

General physical layout

Internal Group Variables

Individual competencies and traits of members

Group structure

Size of the group

Cohesiveness and the level of intragroup conflict

Internal pressures on members to conform o the group’s norms

Conditions Affecting Group Behavior

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group structure
Group Structure
  • Role
    • The set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who occupies a given position in a social unit that assist the group in task accomplishment or maintaining group member satisfaction.
    • Role conflict: experiencing differing role expectations
    • Role ambiguity: uncertainty about role expectations

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group structure cont d
Group Structure (cont’d)
  • Norms
    • Acceptable standards or expectations that are shared by the group’s members.
  • Common types of norms
    • Effort and performance
      • Output levels, absenteeism, promptness, socializing
    • Dress
    • Loyalty

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group structure cont d15
Group Structure (cont’d)
  • Conformity
    • Individuals conform in order to be accepted by groups.
    • Group pressures can have an effect on an individual member’s judgment and attitudes.
    • The effect of conformity is not as strong as it once was, although still a powerful force.
    • Groupthink
      • The extensive pressure of others in a strongly cohesive or threatened group that causes individual members to change their opinions to conform to that of the group.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 4 examples of cards used in the asch study
Exhibit 15–4 Examples of Cards Used in the Asch Study

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group structure cont d17
Group Structure (cont’d)
  • Status System
    • The formal or informal prestige grading, position, or ranking system for members of a group that serves as recognition for individual contributions to the group and as a behavioral motivator.
      • Formal status systems are effective when the perceived ranking of an individual and the status symbols accorded that individual are congruent.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group structure group size
Small groups

Complete tasks faster than larger groups.

Make more effective use of facts.

Large groups

Solve problems better than small groups.

Are good for getting diverse input.

Are more effective in fact-finding.

Social Loafing

The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when work individually.

Group Structure: Group Size

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group structure cont d19
Group Structure (cont’d)
  • Group Cohesiveness
    • The degree to which members are attracted to a group and share the group’s goals.
      • Highly cohesive groups are more effective and productive than less cohesive groups when their goals aligned with organizational goals.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 5 the relationship between cohesiveness and productivity
Exhibit 15–5 The Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group processes group decision making
Advantages

Generates more complete information and knowledge.

Generates more diverse alternatives.

Increases acceptance of a solution.

Increases legitimacy of decision.

Disadvantages

Time consuming

Minority domination

Pressures to conform

Ambiguous responsibility

Group Processes: Group Decision Making

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 6 group versus individual decision making

Criteria of Effectiveness Groups Individuals

Accuracy 

Speed 

Creativity 

Degree of acceptance 

Efficiency 

Exhibit 15–6 Group versus Individual Decision Making

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 7 techniques for making more creative group decisions
Exhibit 15–7 Techniques for Making More Creative Group Decisions

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group processes conflict management
Group Processes: Conflict Management
  • Conflict
    • The perceived incompatible differences in a group resulting in some form of interference with or opposition to its assigned tasks.
      • Traditional view: conflict must be avoided.
      • Human relations view: conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group.
      • Interactionist view: conflict can be a positive force and is absolutely necessary for effective group performance.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group processes conflict management cont d
Group Processes: Conflict Management (cont’d)
  • Categories of Conflict
    • Functional conflicts are constructive.
    • Dysfunctional conflicts are destructive.
  • Types of Conflict
    • Task conflict: content and goals of the work
    • Relationship conflict: interpersonal relationships
    • Process conflict: how the work gets done

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 8 conflict and group performance
Exhibit 15–8 Conflict and Group Performance

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group processes conflict management cont d27
Group Processes: Conflict Management (cont’d)
  • Techniques to Reduce Conflict:
    • Avoidance
    • Accommodation
    • Forcing
    • Compromise
    • Collaboration

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 9 conflict management techniques
Exhibit 15–9 Conflict-Management Techniques

Source:Adapted from K.W. Thomas, “Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations,” in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds.) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, vol. 3, 2d ed. (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p. 668. With permission

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group tasks and group effectiveness
Group Tasks and Group Effectiveness
  • Highly complex and interdependent tasks require:
    • Effective communications: discussion among group members.
    • Controlled conflict: More interaction among group members.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

what is a team
What Is a Team?
  • Work Team
    • A group whose members work intensely on a specific common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills.
  • Types of Teams
    • Problem-solving teams
    • Self-managed work teams
    • Cross-functional teams
    • Virtual teams

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 10 groups versus teams
Exhibit 15–10 Groups versus Teams

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

types of teams
Types of Teams
  • Problem-solving Teams
    • Employees from the same department and functional area who are involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems.
  • Self-managed Work Teams
    • A formal group of employees who operate without a manager and responsible for a complete work process or segment.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

types of teams cont d
Types of Teams (cont’d)
  • Cross-functional Teams
    • A hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on various tasks.
  • Virtual Teams
    • Teams that use computer technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

advantages of using teams
Advantages of Using Teams
  • Teams outperform individuals.
  • Teams provide a way to better use employee talents.
  • Teams are more flexible and responsive.
  • Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 11 characteristics of effective teams
Exhibit 15–11 Characteristics of Effective Teams

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

characteristics of effective teams
Have a clear understanding of their goals.

Have competent members with relevant technical and interpersonal skills.

Exhibit high mutual trust in the character and integrity of their members.

Are unified in their commitment to team goals.

Have good communication systems.

Possess effective negotiating skills

Have appropriate leadership

Have both internally and externally supportive environments

Characteristics of Effective Teams

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

current challenges in managing teams
Current Challenges in Managing Teams
  • Getting employees to:
    • Cooperate with others
    • Share information
    • Confront differences
    • Sublimate personal interest for the greater good of the team

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

managing global teams
Managing Global Teams
  • Group Member Resources
    • Unique cultural characteristics of team members
    • Avoiding stereotyping
  • Group Structure
    • Conformity—less groupthink
    • Status—varies in importance among cultures
    • Social loafing—predominately a Western bias
    • Cohesiveness—more difficult to achieve
  • Group processes—capitalize on diverse ideas
  • Manager’s role—a communicator sensitive to the type of globe team to use.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

exhibit 15 12 drawbacks and benefits of global teams
Exhibit 15–12 Drawbacks and Benefits of Global Teams

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

understanding social networks
Understanding Social Networks
  • Social Network
    • The patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups
  • The Importance of Social Networks
    • Relationships can help or hinder team effectiveness
    • Relationships improve team goal attainment and increase member commitment to the team.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

terms to know
group

forming

storming

norming

performing

adjourning

role

norms

groupthink

status

social loafing

group cohesiveness

conflict

traditional view of conflict

human relations view of conflict

interactionist view of conflict

functional conflicts

dysfunctional conflicts

task conflict

relationship conflict

process conflict

work teams

Terms to Know

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

terms to know42
problem-solving team

self-managed work team

cross-functional team

virtual team

social network structure

Terms to Know

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.