load balanced routing with constant stretch for wireless sensor network with holes n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Load Balanced Routing with Constant Stretch for Wireless Sensor Network with Holes PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Load Balanced Routing with Constant Stretch for Wireless Sensor Network with Holes

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 47

Load Balanced Routing with Constant Stretch for Wireless Sensor Network with Holes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 84 Views
  • Uploaded on

Load Balanced Routing with Constant Stretch for Wireless Sensor Network with Holes. Nguyen Phi Le, Nguyen Duc Trong and Nguyen Khanh Van Ha Noi University of science and technology. Agenda . Background Related works P roblem statement and goals Proposed scheme

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Load Balanced Routing with Constant Stretch for Wireless Sensor Network with Holes' - mort


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
load balanced routing with constant stretch for wireless sensor network with holes

Load Balanced Routing with Constant Stretch for Wireless Sensor Network with Holes

Nguyen Phi Le, Nguyen DucTrong and Nguyen Khanh Van

Ha Noi University of science and technology

agenda
Agenda
  • Background
  • Related works
  • Problem statement and goals
  • Proposed scheme
    • Strategy to choose the forbidding area
    • Hole bypassing routing protocol
  • Performance evaluation
  • Conclusion and future work
agenda1
Agenda
  • Background
  • Related works
  • Problem statement and goals
  • Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • Our proposed routing scheme
  • Performance evaluation
  • Conclusion and future work
background
Background
  • Geographic routing
    • Uses location information of the nodes
      • Each node knows the location of the neighbors and the destination
    • Achieves near optimal path with network without holes
background1
Background
  • Geographic routing with holes
    • Hole diffusion problem
background2
Background
  • Geographic routing with holes
    • Hole diffusion problem
    • Routing path enlargement problem
background3
Background
  • Common approach
    • Constructing a forbidding area around the hole
      • Nodes know the hole in advance
    • Routing the packet along optimal path outside the forbidding area
agenda2
Agenda
  • Background
  • Related works
  • Problem statement and goals
  • Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • Our proposed routing scheme
  • Performance evaluation
  • Conclusion and future work
related works
Related works
  • Target the hole diffusion problem

The forbidding area is very simple

The dissemination cost is small

Virtual hexagon [H.Choo, ICOIN’11]

Virtual Circle [F.Yu, JCN 2009]

Virtual ellipse [Y.Tian, ICC’08]

related works1
Related works
  • Hole diffusion problem has not been solved thoroughly
    • Static forbidding area
      • Traffic is concentrated around the forbidding area
  • Routing path is enlarged in some cases
related works2
Related works
  • Target the routing path enlargement problem

D

GOAL

[Transaction on parallel and distributed computing, 2011]

Visibility graph [G.Tan, infocom 2009]

S

Constant stretch

Hole

BUT

Convex hull

Data congestion on the boundary of the convex hull

agenda3
Agenda
  • Background
  • Related works
  • Problem statement and goals
  • Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • Our proposed routing scheme
  • Performance evaluation
  • Conclusion and future work
problem statement
Problem statement
  • Hole diffusion problem has not been solved thoroughly
    • Static forbidding area
      • Traffic is concentrated around the forbidding area
  • None of the existing schemes solves both of the two problems
slide14
Goal
  • Finding the optimal forbidding area
    • Constant stretch
    • Load balancing
    • Small dissemination cost
  • Propose a hole bypassing routing scheme which
    • Has a constant stretch
    • Solves the problem of hole diffusion thoroughly
agenda4
Agenda
  • Background
  • Related works
  • Problem statement and goals
  • Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • Our proposed routing scheme
  • Performance evaluation
  • Conclusion and future work
theoretical model
Theoretical model
  • Considering networks with only one hole
  • Modeling the geographic S-D routing path as the Euclidean line between S and D

Real geographic routing path

Euclidean routing path

theoretical model1
Theoretical model
  • Euclidean stretch of the forbidding area to the hole

Hole

Forbidding area

Shortest Euclidean routing path bypassing the hole

Euclidean routing path bypassing the forbidding area

strategy to choose the forbidding area
Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • Constant stretch
  • Load balancing
  • Small dissemination cost
strategy to choose the forbidding area1
Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • The shortest Euclidean path bypassing a polygon
    • broken line through the vertices of the convex hull

Convex hull of polygon P:

a convex polygon which covers P and

its vertices are the vertices of P

strategy to choose the forbidding area2
Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • The shortest Euclidean path bypassing a polygon
    • broken line through the vertices of the convex hull

Is the convex hull the best forbidding area ???

  • The Euclidean stretch of the convex hull to the hole is 1
strategy to choose the forbidding area3
Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • The shortest Euclidean path bypassing a polygon
    • broken line through the vertices of the convex hull

The number of the vertices of the convex hull maybe very large

The dissemination cost is large too

strategy to choose the forbidding area4
Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • The forbidding area should be a convex polygon

Hole bypassing routing path

Hole

Forbidding area

strategy to choose the forbidding area5
Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • If P is a n-gonwith equal angles such that P covers the hole and each edge of P contains at least one vertex of the hole, then Euclidean stretch of P to the hole is upper bounded by
  • We choose the octagon with the equal angles as the forbidding area
  • The Euclidean stretch does not exceed
strategy to choose the forbidding area6
Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • Constant stretch
  • Load balance
  • Small dissemination cost

Traffic concentration around the boundary of the forbidding area

Hole

Forbidding area

strategy to choose the forbidding area7
Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • The Euclidean stretch depends on
    • Perimeter of the forbidding area
    • Distance between the source and the destination
      • The larger the distance, the smaller the Euclidean stretch
  • The Euclidean stretch does not depends on
    • The position of the forbidding area
  • Dynamic forbidding area
    • The size and the position are packet specific
agenda5
Agenda
  • Background
  • Related works
  • Problem statement and goals
  • Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • Our proposed routing scheme
  • Performance evaluation
  • Conclusion and future work
proposed protocol detail
Proposed protocol detail
  • Initial network setup
  • Hole bypassing protocol
proposed protocol detail1
Proposed protocol detail
  • Initial network setup
    • Identifying hole boundary
    • Determining core polygon
    • Disseminating information of core polygon to a restricted area
  • Hole bypassing protocol

1. Identifying hole boundary

2. Determining core polygon

3. Disseminating core polygon

4. Hole bypassing protocol

initial network setup
Initial network setup
  • Core polygon construction

2. Construct another rectangle circumscribing the hole with edge directions of angle of to the first

1. Construct a rectangle circumscribing the hole

initial network setup1
Initial network setup
  • Core polygon construction

3. The intersections of the two rectangles form the core polygon

initial network setup2
Initial network setup
  • Core polygon information dissemination

Region 1

Region 2

  • Dissemination area is restricted by predefined threshold δ

pC: perimeter of the core polygon; l(N): distance from N to the core polygon ; β(N): view limit from N to the core polygon

proposed protocol detail2
Proposed protocol detail
  • Initial network setup
    • Identifying hole boundary
    • Determining core polygon
    • Disseminating information of core polygon to a restricted area
  • Hole bypassing protocol

1. Identifying hole boundary

2. Determining core polygon

3. Disseminating core polygon

4. Hole bypassing protocol

hole bypassing protocol
Hole bypassing protocol
  • The packet is initiated in region 2

Region 1

Region 2

hole bypassing protocol1
Hole bypassing protocol
  • The packet is initiated in region 1 (or arrived at a node in region 1)

Region 1

I

Region 2

  • Determines the forbidding area (A-polygon): Image of the core polygon through a homothetic transformation
    • The center is chosen randomly
    • The scale factor > 1 is computed based on source-destination distance
hole bypassing protocol2
Hole bypassing protocol
  • The packet is initiated in region 1 (or arrived at a node in region 1)

Region 1

I

Region 2

Scale factor is computed based on the source-destination distance

Constant stretch of routing path

Random selection of I

Forbidding area is different per packet

hole bypassing protocol3
Hole bypassing protocol
  • The packet is initiated in region 1 (or arrived at a node in region 1)

Region 1

I

Region 2

  • Determines shortest Euclidean path which bypasses the A-polygon
    • Virtual anchors: vertices of A-polygon
  • Routes the packet to the virtual anchors
agenda6
Agenda
  • Background
  • Related works
  • Problem statement and goals
  • Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • Our proposed routing scheme
  • Performance evaluation
  • Conclusion and future work
performance evaluation
Performance evaluation
  • Theoretical analysis
    • Proves the constant Euclidean stretch of the proposed protocol
  • Simulation
    • Compares performance with existing protocols
theoretical analysis
Theoretical analysis
  • Constant stretch
    • Euclidean stretch does not exceed to (~1.09+δ)

( predefined parameter)

simulation
Simulation
  • Benchmarks
    • Virtual Circle [F.Yu, transaction on communication and network 2009]
    • Virtual hexagon [H.Choo, ICOIN’11]
    • Convex hull [Transaction on parallel and distributed computing, 2011]
  • Evaluation metrics
    • Stretch in hop-count
      • The ratio between the hop-count of the routing path using routing protocol and the optimal routing path.
    • Energy consumption of individual sensor nodes
    • Energy overhead
      • The extra energy caused by the initial network setup phase in our protocol.
simulation1
Simulation
  • Simulation scenario
    • Simulator :NS2
    • Network area: 1000m x 1000m
    • Sensor nodes: 1500
    • Number of the hole: 1
    • Number of the vertices of the hole: 52
    • Simulation time: 500s
    • Number of source-destination pair: 100 pairs
    • Packet transmission frequency: 1packet/1s

(Victor Shnayder et al., Simulating the power consumption of large scale

sensor network applications, SenSys’04 )

simulation2
Simulation
  • Simulation result
    • Stretch
      • Smaller than “virtual hexagon”, “virtual circle”
      • Greater than “Goal” but the difference is not much
      • Less than 1.2 (with δ=1)
      • Does not increase when decreasing the distance between source-destination
simulation3
Simulation
  • Simulation result
    • Energy consumption of individual sensor nodes
      • “Goal” is the worst
      • The proposed scheme is the most balanced compared to the existing protocols

GOAL

Proposed scheme(

Virtual hexagon

Virtual circle

simulation4
Simulation
  • Simulation result
    • Energy overhead
      • Decreases with the increasing of the stretch
      • Just accounts for only 0.095% of the entire energy even in the worst case
agenda7
Agenda
  • Background
  • Related works
  • Problem statement and goals
  • Strategy to choose the forbidding area
  • Our proposed routing scheme
  • Performance evaluation
  • Conclusion and future work
conclusion and future work
Conclusion and future work
  • Conclusion
    • We proposed a routing protocol to bypass the hole
      • Solves the problem of hole diffusion
      • Ensures a constant stretch
    • Euclidean stretch , theoretically
    • Proposed scheme outperforms existing protocols by simulation
      • Hop-count stretch <1.2 (with =1)
  • Future work
    • Consider the network with multiple holes
    • Compare performance of our protocol with non-geographic routing protocols