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Load-Balanced Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks. Gaurav Gupta and Mohamed Younis IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2003. (ICC 2003) Bao-Hua Yang. Outline. Introduction Network model Load-Balanced clustering Simulation Conclusion. Introduction.

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load balanced clustering in wireless sensor networks

Load-Balanced Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks

Gaurav Gupta and Mohamed Younis

IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2003.

(ICC 2003)

Bao-Hua Yang

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Network model
  • Load-Balanced clustering
  • Simulation
  • Conclusion
introduction
Introduction
  • In sensor network, sensor node has constrained energy
  • When the topology is cluster, cluster head
    • Act as the manager
    • May die quickly
  • Objective
    • Balance the load between cluster heads
    • Prolong the lifetime of cluster heads
introduction1
Introduction
  • Basic idea
    • Balance the number of the sensor nodes in each cluster
    • Consider on communication cost between gateway and sensors
network model
Network model
  • Assumption
    • Two kind of nodes
      • Sensor node
        • Sensing data
        • Energy-constrained
      • Gateway node
        • Cluster manager
        • High-energy
        • All gateways form their own subnet
    • All nodes have
      • Location information---GPS
      • Not mobile
network model2
Network model
  • Sensor energy dissipation model

transmitter

receiver

load balanced clustering
Load-Balanced Clustering
  • Define Range set(Rset), Exclusive set(Eset),

the reach of sensor node

7

1

9

4

G1

11

G2

6

2

8

5

3

10

load balanced clustering1
Load-Balanced Clustering
  • Define Range set(Rset), Exclusive set(Eset),

the reach of sensor node

7

1

9

4

G1

11

G2

1.Location

2.energy reserve

6

2

8

5

3

10

RsetG1{1,2,3,4,5,6,7}

load balanced clustering2
Load-Balanced Clustering
  • Define Range set(Rset), Exclusive set(Eset),

the reach of sensor node

7

1

9

4

G1

11

G2

6

2

8

5

3

10

RsetG2{6,7,8,9,10,11}

RsetG1{1,2,3,4,5,6,7}

load balanced clustering3
Load-Balanced Clustering
  • Define Range set(Rset), Exclusive set(Eset),

the reach of sensor node

7

1

9

4

G1

11

G2

6

2

8

5

3

10

RsetG2{6,7,8,9,10,11}

RsetG1{1,2,3,4,5,6,7}

load balanced clustering4
Load-Balanced Clustering
  • Define Range set(Rset), Exclusive set(Eset),

the reach of sensor node

7

1

9

4

G1

11

G2

6

2

8

5

3

10

RsetG2{6,7,8,9,10,11}

EsetG2 {8,9,10,11}

RsetG1{1,2,3,4,5,6,7}

EsetG1 {1,2,3,4,5}

load balanced clustering5
Load-Balanced Clustering
  • Define Range set(Rset), Exclusive set(Eset),

the reach of sensor node

7

1

9

4

G1

11

G2

6

2

8

5

3

10

RsetG2{6,7,8,9,10,11}

EsetG2 {8,9,10,11}

RsetG1{1,2,3,4,5,6,7}

EsetG1 {1,2,3,4,5}

Reach: reach1=1,reach6=2

load balanced clustering6
Load-Balanced Clustering

1

15

Rset{1,2,3,5,4,6,10 }

G1

14

10

2

3

11

G2

4

Rset{11,14,15,12,

13,10}

5

6

12

9

13

7

8

G3

Rset{7,8,9,4,6,12,13,10}

load balanced clustering7
Load-Balanced Clustering

1

15

Rset{1,2,3,5,4,6,10 }

G1

14

10

2

3

11

G2

4

Rset{11,14,15,12,

13,10}

5

6

12

9

13

7

8

G3

Rset{7,8,9,4,6,12,13,10}

load balanced clustering8
Load-Balanced Clustering
  • Define critical distance
    • The median of distances in Eset

Rset{1,2,3,5,4,6,10 }

1

G1

Eset {2,3,1,5 }

10

2

3

4

5

6

load balanced clustering9
Load-Balanced Clustering
  • Define critical distance
    • The median of distances in Eset

Rset{1,2,3,5,4,6,10 }

1

G1

Eset {2,3,1,5 ,4}

10

2

3

4

5

6

Critical distance

load balanced clustering10
Load-Balanced Clustering

1

15

Rset{1,2,3,5,6,4,10 }

G1

14

10

2

3

11

G2

4

Rset{11,14,15

12,13,10}

5

6

12

9

13

7

8

G3

Rset{7,8,9,12,13,6,10}

load balanced clustering11
Load-Balanced Clustering
  • The cardinality of per cluster
    • Objective function minimizes the variance of the cardinality
  • The cost between gateway and sensor node

Where G: number of gateways

X: cardinality of gateway Gi

X’: average cardinality including the

node under consideration

load balanced clustering12
Load-Balanced Clustering

1

15

Rset{1,2,3,5,6,4,10 }

G1

14

10

2

3

11

G2

4

Rset{11,14,15

12,13,10}

5

6

12

9

13

7

8

G3

Rset{7,8,9,6,12,13,10}

load balanced clustering13
Load-Balanced Clustering

1

15

Rset{1,2,3,5,6,4,10 }

G1

14

10

2

3

11

G2

4

Rset{11,14,15

12,13,10}

5

6

12

9

13

If add 6 to G1

7

8

G3

Rset{7,8,9,12,13,6,10}

load balanced clustering14
Load-Balanced Clustering

1

15

Rset{1,2,3,5,6,4,10 }

G1

14

10

2

3

11

G2

4

Rset{11,14,15

12,13,10}

5

6

12

9

13

If add 6 to G1

7

8

G3

Rset{7,8,9,12,13,6,10}

If add 6 to G2

load balanced clustering15
Load-Balanced Clustering

1

15

Rset{1,2,3,5,6,4,10 }

G1

14

10

2

3

11

G2

4

Rset{11,14,15

12,13,10}

5

6

12

9

13

7

8

G3

Rset{7,8,9,12,13,6,10}

simulation
Simulation
  • Environmental setup
    • Sensing area:1000*1000 square meter
    • Number of sensors: 100 to 500
    • Number of gateways: 2 to 10
    • Each node has initial energy: 5 joules
simulation1
Simulation

Gateways:5

Sensor nodes:100~500

conclusion
Conclusion
  • This paper introduced an approach to balance the load among cluster head
  • Future work
    • Fault tolerance by providing backup gateway
      • WCNC2003
    • Dynamic gateway