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Classification - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Classification. grouping of different types of organisms based upon similarities in structure and evolutionary relationships . WHY CLASSIFY?. In order to more easily study the unity and diversity of living organisms in an organized manner, biologists classify organisms

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classification

Classification

grouping of different types of organisms based upon similarities in structure and evolutionary relationships

why classify
WHY CLASSIFY?
  • In order to more easily study the unity and diversity of living organisms in an organized manner, biologists classify organisms
  • This means that they group organisms together based on their common characteristics
  • Physical structure is often the primary basis for biological classification
early classification

Early classification

Animals & Plants

With the discovery of the MICROSCOPE in the 1600’s many new organisms were discovered

This was the basis for the change in the classification system

bionomial nomenclature
BIONOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
  • Carolus Linneaus devised binomial nomenclature
  • (2 names in Latin) Genus-Species
    • ex. scientific name of humans ..... Homo sapiens
    • Homo is the genus name .... sapiens is the species name
    • Both have to be printed in italics or underlined
    • -Genus is ALWAYS capitalized
modern classification system
MODERN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM:
  • KINGDOM
  • PHYLLUM
  • CLASS
  • ORDER
  • FAMILY
  • GENUS
  • SPECIES
how to remember that
HOW TO REMEMBER THAT:
  • KING PHILIP CAME OVER FOR GOOD SOUP
kingdoms
KINGDOMS:
  • The 6 Kingdom System is based on the following criteria:

1. Presence or absence of a nuclear membrane

2. Unicellularity versus multicellularity

3. Type of nutrition

archaebacteria
Archaebacteria
  • most primitive and often live in extreme environments
  • LIVE IN UNUSUALLY HARSH ENVIRONMENTS
  • unicellular and no nucleus
  • This is the Proposed 6th KINGDOM
    • There are 3 types:
      • salt loving, heat loving & methane loving
kingdom monera
Kingdom Monera
  • bacteria and blue green algae
  • have a primitive cell structure
  • no organized nucleus or nuclear membrane
  • Three basic types of bacteria
  • Coccus-
  • Baccillus-
  • Spirillum-
kingdom protista
Kingdom Protista
  • Predominately unicellular organisms with plant or animal-like characteristics
  • examples include protozoa and all algae except the blue-green
  • have a true nucleus and nuclear membrane
  • Classification of Protists:Most protozoa are motile (CAN MOVE) and are divided into phyla based on their means of LOCOMOTION
slide13
Animal-like Protists
  • Often animal like Protists are called PROTOZOA
  • They can live in fresh or salt water, in the soil, or in the bodies of other organisms

Plant-like Protists:

  • Plant-like Protists are commonly called ALGAE
  • They contain chloroplasts and are therefore AUTOTROPHIC
spirogyra
Spirogyra
  • plant-like Protists that contains thread-like filaments of chloroplasts
  • They may reproduce asexually by MITOSIS or sexually by CONJUGATION
plant and animal like protists
Plant and Animal like Protists

The Euglena:

  • exhibits both animal-like and Plant-like characteristics
  • contains chloroplasts, which are involved in PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • contains a flagellum, which is used for LOCOMOTION
  • euglena may be autotrophic or heterotrophic depending on the environment
  • In a light environment euglena would be AUTOTROPHIC
  • In a dark environment the euglena would be HETEROTROPHIC
kingdom fungi
KINGDOM FUNGI
  • examples include yeasts, molds, and mushrooms
  • cells are usually organized into branched, multinucleate filaments which absorb digested food from the external environment
  • Mushrooms are made up of a network of tubes called HYPHAE
kingdom plantae
Kingdom Plantae
  • multicellular - possess chloroplasts and cell walls
  • make their own food - PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • Reproduce sexually – can be asexual
  • Vascular plants are more advanced - they have evolved specialized tissues, xylem, which is involved in structural support and water conduction, and phloem, which functions in food conduction
  • Nonvascular plants are usually no more than an inch or two in height because they do not have adequate support, which is provided by vascular tissues to other plants, to grow bigger
kingdom animalia
Kingdom Animalia
  • multi-cellular organisms which ingest their food – HETEROTROPHS
  • Reproduce sexually
viruses
Viruses
  • not classified in a kingdom
  • contain genetic material (DNA) but lack cell structures
  • only carry on the life function of reproduction
  • They must have a host (another living organism) to be able to reproduce
  • This causes disease in the host (Ex: colds, rabies, AIDS, flu)
slide26

Bacteriophages invade the host cell, take over the cell, and begin replicating viruses, eventually lysing or bursting the host cell, releasing the new viruses to infect additional cells

Papillomavirus is a DNA virus that causes warts

POLIO VIRUS