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Body Planes and Directional Terms

Body Planes and Directional Terms

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Body Planes and Directional Terms

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  1. Body Planes and DirectionalTerms

  2. Why is it important for health care workers to know Anatomical terms?

  3. To care for clients, you must be able to Identify areas of the body For treatments, injections, Or diagnoses

  4. Anatomical Position • Anatomicalposition means that the body is standing erect, facing forward with the arms at the sides and the palms facing forward.

  5. Medical Terms Associated with Directions • anterior……………………….front • caudal………………………….tail, (downward) • cephalic……………………....head, (upward) • distal……………………………away (from the point of reference) • dorsal…………………………..back • inferior…………………….... below • lateral…………………….…….side

  6. medial………………………middle • posterior…………………….back, behind • proximal……………………near(the point of reference) • superior……………………..above • ventral………………………belly (front)

  7. Cranial cavity Thoracic cavity Dorsal cavity Diaphragm Ventral cavity Abdominal cavity Spinal cavity Pelvic cavity Body Cavities The body has 2 main cavities: • Dorsal cavity (back). • Ventral cavity (front).

  8. Dorsal Cavity • Located on the posterior (dorsal) side of the body • It consists of 2 cavities • Cranial Cavity - The bones of the skull create the cranial cavity to protect the brain • Spinal (vertebral) Cavity -Formed by the vertebrae of the spine that surrounds the spinal cord.

  9. Ventral Cavity • Ventral Cavity – located on the anterior/ventral side of the body. It is made up of three cavities. Two are divided by the diaphragm.

  10. Thoracic Cavity • This is the portion of the Ventral Cavity superior to the diaphragm. • It contains the heart, lungs and major vessels

  11. Abdominal Cavity • Located inferior to the diaphragm. It includes the following organs: • Stomach • Spleen • Liver • Gallbladder • pancreas • Small intestine • Most of the large intestine

  12. Pelvic Cavity • The pelvic cavity is surrounded by the pelvic bones. The pelvic cavity contains: • Urinary bladder • male and female reproductive organs • Parts of the digestive system

  13. Planes of the bodyBody planes are imaginary lines that divide the body into sections • Midsagittal plane – divides the body into equal right and left sides. • sagittal plane – divides the body into 2 parts, right and left. • Frontal or coronal plane – divides the body into anterior and posterior sections. • Transverse plane – divides the body horizontally into a top, or superior, part and a bottom, or inferior, part.

  14. Superior Frontal Proximal Distal Midsagittal Transverse Posterior Medial Lateral Anterior Inferior Planes of the body

  15. Midsagittal Plane Divides body into equal right & left halves.

  16. Frontal (Coronal) Plane Divides body into front & back portions

  17. Transverse Plane • Divides body into upper & lower portions.

  18. Abdominal Quadrants • The abdominal/pelvic cavity is so large that it is divided into regions • One method of division is quadrants. Quadrants divide the abdominal/pelvic cavity into four sections using the belly button as the point of reference for both the horizontal and vertical lines

  19. Abdominal Regions • A more precise method of division is abdominal regions. This method divides the area into a tic tac toe board • Epigastric– above the stomach • Umbilical - near the belly button • Hypogastric –below the stomach • Hypochondriac – below the ribs • Lumbar/Lateral – in between the hypocondriac and iliac • Iliac/inguinal – near the groin