Body cavities and directional terms
1 / 17

Body Cavities and Directional Terms - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Body Cavities and Directional Terms. Anatomical Position. Body is standing, arms at side, palms facing forward, head and feet forward This is the position the body is in when using directional terminology Ipsilateral : on the same side Contralateral : on the opposite side. Body Cavities.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Body Cavities and Directional Terms' - xaria

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Body cavities and directional terms

Body Cavities and Directional Terms

Anatomical position
Anatomical Position

  • Body is standing, arms at side, palms facing forward, head and feet forward

  • This is the position the body is in when using directional terminology

  • Ipsilateral: on the same side

  • Contralateral: on the opposite side

Body cavities
Body Cavities

  • The body is not solid

  • Contains 2 major cavities which are then subdivided

  • Ventral Cavity: includes the thoracic (or chest) cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

  • Dorsal Cavity: includes cranial and spinal cavities

Thoracic cavity
Thoracic Cavity

  • Thoracic Cavity: contains a RIGHT and LEFT PLEURAL cavity; midpoint is the MEDIASTINUM

  • Organs in the mediastinum: heart, trachea, right and left bronchi, esophagus, thymus, blood vessels, parts of the lymph system, and nerves

  • Organs in the pleural cavity: right and left lungs

Abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominopelvic Cavity

  • Has upper portion (Abdominal cavity) and lower portion (pelvic cavity)

  • Abdominal Cavity contains: liver, gall bladder, stomach, pancreas, intestines, spleen, kidneys, ureters

  • Pelvic Cavity contains: bladders, certain reproductive organs, colon, rectum

  • In females: uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries

  • In males: prostate gland, seminal vesicle, vas deferens

Dorsal cavity
Dorsal Cavity

  • Cranial cavity lies in the skull and houses the brain

  • Spinal Cavity lies in spinal column and houses the spinal cord

Important terms
Important Terms

  • Parietal: actual wall of the body cavity or the membrane that lines its surface

  • Visceral: not the wall or lining of the body cavity but the membranes that cover the organs, or viscera, within the cavity

Body regions
Body Regions

  • Body can be divided into two major portions: axial and appendicular

  • Axial includes: head, neck, torso and trunk

  • Appendicular includes: upper and lower extremities and their connections (pelvic and pectoral girdles)

  • Each of these are divided into regions

Body region terminology
Body Region Terminology

  • Diagram and Table for Terminology***

Abdominal region
Abdominal Region

  • Divided into 9 regions to help locate organs

  • Right Hypochondriac: right lobe of liver and gall bladder

  • Epigastric: part of right and left liver lobes, portion of stomach

  • Left Hypochondriac: small portion of stomach and large intestines

  • Right Lumbar: portions of large and small intestines

Abdominal region1
Abdominal Region

  • Umbilical: transverse colon, loops of small intestines

  • Left Lumbar: small intestine, portion of colon

  • Right Iliac: cecum, parts of small intestines

  • Hypogastric: small intestines, urinary bladder, appendix

  • Left Iliac: portions of small intestines, colon

Abdominopelvic quadrants
Abdominopelvic Quadrants

  • Helps to describe the site of abdominal pain or locate pathology

  • Horizontal and vertical line passing through the umbilicus (navel) divides into

    • Right Upper Quadrant

    • Left Upper Quadrant

    • Right Lower Quadrant

    • Left Lower Quadrant

Directional terms
Directional Terms

  • Superior: toward the head; upper/above

  • Inferior: toward the feet; lower/below

  • Anterior: front; in front of

  • Posterior: back; in back of

  • Medial: Toward the midline of the body

  • Lateral: toward the side; away from the midline

  • Proximal: toward or nearest to the trunk

  • Distal: away from the trunk

  • Superficial: near the surface

  • Deep: farther from the body surface

Organ terms
Organ Terms

  • Lumen: the hollow portion of an organ

  • Central: near the center

  • Peripheral: near the boundary or edge

  • Medullary: inner region of an organ

  • Cortical: outer region or layer of an organ

  • Basal: widest point of an organ

  • Apical: narrowest tip of an organ

Body planes and sections
Body Planes and Sections

  • Sagittal Plane: lengthwise plane running from front to back; divides into left and right

  • Coronal Plane: lengthwise plane running from left to right; divides into front and back (also called frontal plane)

  • Transverse Plane: crosswise plane; divides into upper and lower quadrants (also called horizontal plane)

Body types
Body Types

  • Somatype: used to describe body build or physique

  • ENDOMORPH: heavy, rounded physique characterized large accumulations of fat in trunk and thighs

  • MESOMORPH: muscular physique

  • ECTOMORPH: thin, fragile physique characterized by little body fat accumulation


  • Constant state maintained by the body

  • Maintaining a constant internal environment inside the body by the body systems

  • P.23 Figure 1-13