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Human Anatomy: The study of the structures that make up the human body and how those structures relate to each other. Structure determines function: The structures of the human body are well-designed for efficient movement. Starting Points Anatomical Position Directional Terms

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Starting Points Anatomical Position Directional Terms Planes of the Body


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    1. Human Anatomy: The study of the structures that make up the human body and how those structures relate to each other. • Structure determines function: The structures of the human body are well-designed for efficient movement.

    2. Starting Points • Anatomical Position • Directional Terms • Planes of the Body • The Musculoskeletal System • Bones • Joints • Muscles Important Terms and Concepts

    3. The starting reference point for describing the human body • It is universally accepted Anatomical Position

    4. M L Lateral – Away from the midline of the body Medial - Toward the midline Lateral-Medial

    5. P • Distal • Further from some specified region • Proximal • Closer to some specified region e.g., With respect to the trunk, the hands are distal to the arms and the arms are proximal to the hands. D Distal-Proximal

    6. Anterior • In front of or front of your body • Posterior • Behind or back of your body Anterior-Posterior

    7. Superior • Above • Inferior • Below Superior-Inferior

    8. Imaginary flat surfaces that divide the human body into unique segments • They are used to: • divide the body for further identification of particular areas • describe different movements or actions Anatomical Planes

    9. Median Plane Vertical plane that bisects the body into equal right and left halves Median or Mid-sagittal plane

    10. A vertical plane that bisects the body into front and back Coronal Plane Coronal or Frontal plane

    11. A horizontal plane that bisects the body into top and bottom Transverse Plane Transverse or Horizontal plane

    12. The point at which the median, frontal, and transverse planes intersect Center of Gravity

    13. Posterior/Anterior Regions • Lateral/Medial Surfaces • Dorsal and Ventral • Superior and Inferior An Alternative Application

    14. Directional Terms Again

    15. Transverse Frontal Mid-Sagittal Planes Again

    16. Planes and Directional Terms

    17. Horizontal Section (Transverse Slice) • Frontal Section (Coronal Slice) Neural Imaging: MRI

    18. One Final Example

    19. Movement around a joint may be around any one (or more) of three axes Most movements are found in pairs – for every movement, there is generally a movement that is opposite to it Y X Z Movements or Actions

    20. Flexion • reduces the angle between two bones at a joint • Extension • increases the angle between two bones at a joint Sagittal Plane

    21. Dorsiflexion • bringing the top of the foot toward the lower leg or shin • Plantar flexion • “planting” the foot Sagittal Plane

    22. Abduction • moving a segment away from the midline of the body • Adduction • moving segment toward the midline of the body Frontal Plane

    23. Rotation • When a force is not exerted along a line that passes through a body’s center of gravity (eccentric force), the body will experience angular (rotary) motion Transverse Plane

    24. Pronation (Prone Position) • when the palm is moved to face posterior • Supination (Supine position) • when the palm is moved to face anterior Transverse Plane

    25. Starting Points • Anatomical Position • Directional Terms • Planes of the Body • The Musculoskeletal System • Bones • Joints • Muscles Important Terms and Concepts

    26. According to the degree of porosity, bone can be classified into two general categories (important for strength and flexibility): • Cortical bone (low porosity) • Spongy or cancellous bone (high porosity) Bone: General Structure

    27. Femur Humerus • Short - Support • Long – Leverage • Flat - Protection • Irregular - Multi • Sesamoid (patella) Types of Bones

    28. Axial • Skull • Sternum • Ribs • Vertebral Column Skeleton

    29. Appendicular • The pectoral girdle (chest) • Pelvic girdle (hip) • The upper limbs • The lower limbs Skeleton

    30. rigid internal framework • area to attach muscles • producing movement • protection of organs • provides red blood cells • minerals (Ca2+) Skeletal System Functions

    31. When we are considering producing a physical activity (or movement) we are often thinking about changes in joint angles

    32. A joint is a point of connection between two bones • Strands of connective tissue and ligaments hold the bones together and ensure the stability of joints Joints

    33. Joints can be classified partly on the basis of the material that joins them: • Fibrous joints • Allow no movement • E.g., sutures of the skull • Cartilaginous joints • Allow limited movement • E.g., intervertebral discs • Synovial joints • Allow large range of movements • E.g., hip joint Joints: Classification

    34. Hyaline cartilage • A protective layer of dense white connective tissue that covers the ends of the articulating bones • Joint cavity • Synovial membrane • Covers joint cavity, except over the surfaces of the articular cartilage • Secretes the lubrication fluid • Synovial fluid • Lubricates the joint • Capsule • May or may not have thickenings called intrinsic ligaments • Extrinsic ligaments • Support the joint and connect the articulating bones of the joint Synovial Joint

    35. Ball and Socket Joint • Condyloid Joint • Saddle-shaped joint • Hinge Joint • Pivot Joint • Plane Joint (bones of hand and foot) Synovial Joints

    36. Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Rotation Ball and Socket: Shoulder and Hip

    37. Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Right Human Anterior Distal Radius Ulna and Carpals Condyloid Joint: The Wrist

    38. Biaxial (flexion-extension, abduction-adduction) • The bones set together as in sitting on a horse • CarpoMetacarpal joint of the thumb • The “Gig Em Joint” Saddle Joint: The Thumb

    39. Flexion Extension Hinge Joint: Finger or Foot

    40. In the proximal radioulnar articulation, the ring is formed by the radial notch of the ulna and the annularligament; here, the head of the radius rotates within the ring. Pivot Joint: Elbow Complex

    41. The human body is comprised of 324 muscles • Muscle makes up 30 to 35 % (in women) and 42 to 47 % (in men) of body mass. Muscles

    42. Contractile tissue of body • Skeletal, smooth, or cardiac • Produce force and produce motion Muscles

    43. Located in the blood vessels, respiratory tract, iris of the eye, gastro-intestinal (GI) tract • Contractions are slow and uniform • Functions to alter the activity of various body parts to meet the needs of the body at that time • Fatigue resistant • Activation is involuntary Smooth Muscle

    44. Has characteristics of both skeletal and smooth muscle • Functions to provide the contractile activity of the heart • Contractile activity can be gradated (like skeletal muscle) • Very fatigue resistant • Activation of cardiac muscle is involuntary (like smooth muscle) Cardiac Muscle

    45. During muscle contraction, skeletal muscle shortens and moves various parts of the skeleton • Through graded activation of the muscles, the speed and smoothness of the movement can be gradated • Activated through signals carried to the muscles via nerves (voluntary control) • Repeated activation of a skeletal muscle can lead to fatigue Skeletal Muscle

    46. Force and Joint Angle

    47. Slow Twitch Type I • slow oxidative • Fast Twitch Type II • fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) (IIa) • fast-twitch glycolytic fibers (IIb) Fiber Types

    48. Fiber Types

    49. Central Nervous System • Peripheral Nervous System • Motor or Efferent • Sensory or Afferent • Interneurons Nervous System