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Academic RTI & Positive Behavioral Support. An Introduction to the Concepts Framework: English Language Learners. An Introduction:. ELL & Academic RTI. Reasons Kids Fail . Lack of Motivation (Won’t do it) Lack of practice and feedback (Never tried it) Not enough help doing it

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academic rti positive behavioral support

Academic RTI & Positive Behavioral Support

An Introduction to the Concepts

Framework: English Language Learners

reasons kids fail
Reasons Kids Fail
  • Lack of Motivation
    • (Won’t do it)
  • Lack of practice and feedback
    • (Never tried it)
  • Not enough help doing it
    • (Never taught)
  • Instructional demands do not promote mastery
    • (Has not had to do it before)
  • Poor match b/w child and instruction
    • (It is too hard)
  • Child has a disability
    • (Needs more support to do it).
review of discrepancy model
Review of Discrepancy Model

Teacher refers child for assessment

Psychologist performs assessment (IQ and Achievement test)

Psychologist subtracts the achievement score from the IQ score

Psychologist determines if any significant discrepancy b/w IQ and achievement

Eligibility team meets.

Child is either placed or not placed in special education

response to intervention
Response to Intervention

Tier I:

100% of the population

All students receive appropriate instruction

Tier III:

5% of the pop.

Intense support

with/without SPED

Tier II:

15% of the population

As needed, additional support

When determining whether a pupil has a specific learning disability, the public agency may use a process that determines if the pupil responds to scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation procedures. (IDEA, 2004)

requirements for rti dx
Requirements for RTI Dx
  • Knowledge of ELL & Cultural Issues
  • Availability of measures to evaluate growth.
  • Availability of research based intervention.
  • Ability of the person providing the intervention.
  • Ability of the person making the decision as to the child’s responsiveness.
steps to rti
Steps to RTI
  • Teacher refers child for SST/ CST/ RTI team
  • Baseline Data Collected
  • Research-based intervention
    • Selected and implemented
  • Progress monitored for a period of time
    • (often 8 – 12 weeks)
  • Team reconvenes to determine progress made.
    • If none, then eligibility team meets.
      • Child is / is not placed in special education.
collecting data
Collecting Data
  • Baseline Data:
    • Needs to address all areas of concern.
    • Need to be in the intended language of intervention.
    • Needs to be the same type as progress monitoring.
  • Progress Monitoring:
    • Needs to address all areas of interventions.
    • Needs to be in the actual language of intervention.
    • Needs to be able to detect incremental changes specific to the curriculum used in intervention.
research based intervention
  • Needs to be appropriate for the actual area of concern.
  • Needs to be targeted specially to the needs of the target child.
    • Klingner & Edwards (2006) argue that there are not enough ELL, research-based, targeted interventions to do RTI with this group.
    • Others state that RTI interventions can be used with ELL students (Linan-Thompson, Cirino, & Vaughn, 2007; Shanahan & Beck, 2006).
eligibility considerations
Eligibility Considerations
  • Did child have adequate opportunity to learn?
  • Is this child’s skills falling within what would be expected in his/her classroom (ELL and general education?
  • Was the intervention research based and specific to the ELL needs?
  • Was the intervention long enough in duration?
  • Did the child fail to show sufficient improvement compared to “true peers”?
    • Is more time and/or a different intervention needed?
    • Were problems due to environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantages?
ways to measure response
Ways to Measure Response
  • Measure pretest/posttest scores and calculate statistics
    • ANCOVA using control and treatment groups.
    • ANOVA using repeated measure design.
  • Growth curve analysis (GCA) using hierarchical linear models
    • Determine common growth curves for a class of students or an intervention group
    • Determine an individual’s growth curve
    • Compare the individual growth curve to the group’s growth curve
  • Compare to others
    • Has a 1 SD difference b/w his/her scores and rest of class
    • Has a 1 SD difference b/w his/her slope of improvement (growth)
  • Looking at the data in a graphical format.
    • Less scientific (no statistical analyses run).
    • Easier to do; harder to make a decision
rti with ells special considerations
RTI with ELLsSpecial Considerations

Waiting for a child to obtain L1 before referring may delay the child’s learning opportunities.

Interventions may need multiple specialists to work.

Interventions may need to be offered for longer than for English-only students.

Some interventions may need to be offered in native language.

terms social emotional and behavioral
Terms: Social, Emotional, and Behavioral
  • Other names for RTI (nonacademic)
    • Social Behavioral Support
    • Positive Behavioral Support
  • Other names for behavioral interventions in schools
    • Functional Behavioral Analysis (FBA)
    • Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
change in treatment
Change in Treatment

Special Ed.: IEP Determination

Tertiary: Selected

Individual Intervention

Secondary: Small Group

Therapy/ Consultation

Primary: Large Group

Therapy/ Consultation

tier i examples of large group interventions
Tier I: Examples of Large Group Interventions
  • Behavior Problems
    • Implement a school-wide behavior management plan
    • Provide multiple and varied opportunities for students to respond to instruction.
    • Minimize transition time between activities.
    • Provide direct and immediate corrective feedback.
  • Social Problems
    • Anti-bullying (psycho-educational programs)
    • Empathy training
  • Emotional Problems
    • Teacher training to identify problems
    • Provide positive feedback
    • Establish “success” events
tier ii examples of small group interventions
Tier II: Examples of Small Group Interventions
  • Behavioral Problems
    • Check in and Check out (CICO): additional structure, prompts, instruction, feedback, and acknowledgement (low-level probs.)
    • Stop-and-Think programs
  • Social Problems
    • Social skills training programs (psycho-educational)
    • Self-esteem building programs
  • Emotional Problems
    • Talking, feeling, doing game
    • Parent training groups
    • Group therapy
tier iii examples of individual interventions
Tier III: Examples of Individual Interventions
  • Behavioral Problems
    • Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA): Assessment for determining the Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence (ABC).
    • Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP): Incorporates the FBA information into a behavioral plan.
  • Social Problems
    • Psycho-educational therapy (ineffective outside of a group)
    • Peer support/ helper (especially good for children with developmental disabilities)
  • Emotional Problems
    • Individual Therapy
    • Family Therapy
tier iv special education
Tier IV: Special Education
  • Who provides counseling as a related service?
    • qualified social workers
    • psychologists
    • guidance counselors
    • other qualified personnel.
pbs considerations for ells
PBS Considerationsfor ELLs

Children who are ELL may be targeted by bullies.

Children who are recent immigrants may be going through the acculturation W.

ELL in a new environment often go through a “silent” or “mute” period.

Some cultures emphasize behaving well over individuality.

Some cultures may view significant mental illness differently than we do in the United States.


Brown, J. E., & Doolittle, J. (2008)A cultural, linguistic, and ecological framework for response to with English language learners. Teaching Exceptional Children. 66-72.

Fairbanks, S. , Sugai, G., Guardino, D., & Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention:Examining classroom behavior support in second grade. Exceptional Children, 73, 288-310.

Gresham, F.M. (2002). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. In R. Bradley & L. Danielson (Eds.), Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice (pp. 467-519). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Klingner, J., & Edwards, (2006). Cultural considerations with Response to Intervention models. Reading Research Quarterly 41(1), 108-117.