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7 th International Conference on Positive Behavior Support St. Louis, Missouri March 26, 2010. Culturally Competent School-wide Positive Behavior Support: From Theory to Evaluation Data. Tary J. Tobin ( ttobin@uoregon.edu ) Claudia G. Vincent ( clavin@uoregon.edu ) University of Oregon.

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culturally competent school wide positive behavior support from theory to evaluation data

7th International Conference on Positive Behavior SupportSt. Louis, MissouriMarch 26, 2010

Culturally CompetentSchool-wide Positive Behavior Support: From Theory to Evaluation Data

Tary J. Tobin (ttobin@uoregon.edu)

Claudia G. Vincent (clavin@uoregon.edu)

University of Oregon

advance organizer
Advance Organizer
  • Part I
    • Behavioral outcomes for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students—the discipline gap
    • Brief look at some data
    • Proposal for expanding the conceptual framework of SWPBS to include cultural responsiveness
  • Part II
    • Strategies for reducing disproportionate disciplinary exclusions for African-American students
    • Recommendations for future research
behavioral outcomes for cld students the discipline gap
Behavioral outcomes for CLD students—the discipline gap

Compared to White students

  • African-American students are
    • disciplined at a disproportionate rate(Kaufman et al, 2010; Skiba et al., 2005)
      • 2.19 times more likely to receive ODR at elem level, 3.79 times more likely at middle school level
    • more severely (Gregory & Weinstein, 2008; Skiba et al., in review)
      • 3.75 times more likely to be suspended/expelled for minor misbehavior
    • suspended and expelled more often (Krezmien et al., 2006; Raffaele Mendez & Knoff, 2003; Theriot et al., in press)
      • 26.28% AA male vs. 11.95% W male, 13.64% AA female vs. 4.53% W female
behavioral outcomes for cld students the discipline gap4
Behavioral outcomes for CLD students—the discipline gap

Compared to White students

  • African-American students
    • are excluded for longer durations (Vincent & Tobin, in press)
      • 55.37% African-American vs 31.47% White students excluded >10 days
    • are referred to special education at a disproportionate rate (Coutinho & Oswald, 2000; Skiba et al., 2005; Zhang et al. 2004)
      • 3 times more likely to be identified with mild mental retardation
    • have lower high school graduation rates (Stillwell, 2009)
      • 60.3% of African-American students and 80.3% of White students graduated within 4 years in the 2006-07 academic year
    • have higher drop out rates in grades 9-12(Stillwell, 2009)
      • 6.8% of African-American students and 3% of White students dropped out in 2006-07
behavioral outcomes for cld students the discipline gap5
Behavioral outcomes for CLD students—the discipline gap

Compared to White students

  • Latino/a students are
    • identified with depression and anxiety at a disproportionate rate (Fletcher, 2008; McLaughlin et al., 2007; Varela et al., 2008; Zayas et al., 2005)
      • Latina students report statistically higher levels of depression and anxiety (p<.05)
    • have higher drop out rates in 9-12th grade(Stillwell, 2009)
      • 6.5% of Latino students and 3% of White students in 2006-07
    • have higher status drop out rates (percent of 16 through 24-year olds who are not enrolled in schools and have not earned a high school diploma) (U.S. Department of Education, 2009)
      • 21.4% Latino, 5.3% White, 8.4% African-American in 2007
behavioral outcomes for cld students the discipline gap6
Behavioral outcomes for CLD students—the discipline gap

Compared to White students

  • Native American students have
    • lower high school graduation rates (Stillwell, 2009)
      • 61.3% of Nat students and 80.3% of White students graduated within 4 years in the 2006-07 academic year
    • have higher drop out rates (percent of 9-12th graders) (Stillwell, 2009)
      • 7.6% Nat and 3.0% White in 2006-07
recent recommendations for researching disproportionality
Recent recommendations for researching disproportionality
  • “use theoretical frameworks… that honor the complexities of individuals learning in socio-historical and cultural contexts”
  • “engage practitioners as well as families and youth of color in the conceptualization, operationalization, and analysis of research”
  • “expand the scope of the analyses to align with research on disparities in health, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare, and postsecondary education.”
    • Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279-299.
theoretical framework of discipline gap
Theoretical framework of discipline gap
  • Interaction of
    • Factors under the school’s control
      • practices, systems, decision-making
    • Factors not under the school’s control
      • Teachers’ cultural identity(race, language, socio-economic status, immigration status…)
      • Students’ cultural identity(race, language, socio-economic status, immigration status…)
theoretical framework of swpbs factors under the school s control
Theoretical framework of SWPBS (factors under the school’s control)

From Sugai, G. & Horner, R. (2002). The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior support. Child & Family Behavior Therapy 24(1/2), 23-50.

slide11

Theoretical framework of cultural and linguistic diversity(factors not under the school’s control…?)

School’s Cultural Identity

Student’s Cultural Identity

Cultural Stress

Individual Language

Institutional Language

Socio-Economic Status

Rules & Expectations

Outcomes

Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

Data

STUDENT BEHAVIOR

Systems

Ethnicity

Achievement

Goals

Immigration Status

Practices

Administrative Structures

Gender

Tradition

Cultural Responsiveness

swpbs and the discipline gap
SWPBS and the discipline gap
  • What does the discipline gap look like in schools implementing SWPBS compared to schools not implementing SWPBS?
one way to quantify the discipline gap
One way to quantify the discipline gap
  • Proportionate representation
    • (% of students with ODR) – (% of students enrolled) = 0
  • Under-representation:
    • (% of students with ODR) – (% of students enrolled) = -X
  • Over-representation:
    • (% of students with ODR) – (% of students enrolled) = +X
swpbs and the discipline gap16
SWPBS and the discipline gap
  • In schools implementing SWPBS
    • African-American students were less over-represented among students with ODR
    • White students were less under-represented among students with ODR
    • The discipline gap between African-American and White students did not increase across 3 years
slide17

Can SWPBS help to narrow the discipline gap?

Social competence & academic achievement

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Staff behavior

Supporting

Decision-making

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student behavior

culturally responsive systems to support staff behavior
Culturally responsive systems to support staff behavior
  • Systemic support of cultural knowledge
      • Encourage staff to increase their familiarity with cultural differences in expressiveness, communication styles, role of authority, use of language
  • Systemic support of cultural self-awareness
      • Encourage staff to increase their familiarity with cultural specificity of their own behavior
  • see Gwendolyn Cartledge’s work
slide19

Can SWPBS help to narrow the discipline gap?

Social competence & academic achievement

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Staff behavior

Supporting

Decision-making

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student behavior

culturally responsive practices to support student behavior
Culturally responsive practices to support student behavior
  • Culturally relevant behavior support
      • Teach behaviors that are socially relevant to CLD students
  • Culturally validating behavior support
      • Acknowledge students’ cultural identity as a strength
slide21

Can SWPBS help to narrow the discipline gap?

Social competence & academic achievement

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Staff behavior

Supporting

Decision-making

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student behavior

culturally responsive decision making
Culturally responsive decision-making
  • Establish cultural validity of data
      • Carefully review operational definitions of behavioral violations
  • Disaggregate ODR data by student race
      • For example, ethnicity report of the School Wide Information System (www.swis.org)
  • Revise measures
      • Provide schools with tools to assess extent to which culturally responsive systems and practices are in place
slide23

Can SWPBS help to narrow the discipline gap?

Social competence & academic achievement

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Staff behavior

Supporting

Decision-making

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student behavior

culturally responsive outcomes
Culturally responsive outcomes
  • Generate school-wide commitment to culturally equitable behavioral outcomes
      • Define school-wide behavioral goals in collaboration with parents of CLD students
  • Increase accountability for equitable outcomes
      • Review extent to which defined goals are met
lots of work to be done
Lots of work to be done!!
  • Imbed cultural responsiveness components in
    • SWPBS training materials
    • SWPBS data collection instruments
    • SWPBS evaluation plans
    • SWPBS research agenda

…to build evidence base of culturally responsive SWPBS implementation

advance organizer27
Advance Organizer
  • Part II
    • Strategies for reducing disproportionate disciplinary exclusions for African-American students
    • Recommendations for future research
why i wanted to study this and to talk with you about it
Why I wanted to study this and to talk with you about it:
  • Real harm done by exclusion from school (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health, 2003)
  • Real benefits from SWPBS (Sailor, Dunlap, Sugai, & Horner, 2009).
  • Not enough known – or being done – about racially disproportionate disciplinary exclusions – the discipline gap.
studied 94 schools for 2 years
Studied 94 schools for 2 years
  • All had 2 years of School Wide Information System (SWIS, May et al., 2006, see http://swis.org ) discipline data
  • Looked for changes in disproportionate exclusion of African American Students
slide30

All had 2 years of online data about which specific SWPBS strategies they were using.

  • Looked to see if any specific strategies improved –
  • And if changes in disproportionate exclusions also occurred.
ebs survey also known as pbs staff self assessment survey
EBS Survey (also known as “PBS Staff Self-Assessment Survey)

The original version was published as the “EBS Survey” (Lewis & Sugai, 1999).

Current versions are available for downloading from http://pbis.org and for online data entry at http://www.pbssurveys.org/pages/SelfAssessmentSurvey.aspx. In this study, all respondents were using Version 2 (Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2000) .

measures 46 specific elements of positive behavior support in 4 domains of swpbs
Measures 46 specific elements of positive behavior support in 4 domains of SWPBS
  • School-wide System: 18 Features
  • Non-Classroom (also known as “Specific Setting”) System: 9 Features
  • Classroom System: 11 Features
  • Individual Student System: 8 Features
scale for in place status
Scale for “In Place” Status
  • 0 = Not in place
  • 1 = Partially in place
  • 2 = In place

Also asks about “priority for improvement”

relative rate index rri
Relative Rate Index (RRI)
  • An unbiased measure of disproportionality
  • Recommended by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)

http://ojjdp.ncjrs.org/dmc/pdf/dmc2003.pps

to find the rri for disciplinary exclusions of african american and white students
To find the RRI for disciplinary exclusions of African-American and White students:

1. Total number of each group enrolled in the school

2. Number excluded for disciplinary reasons (suspension and/or expulsion)

3. For each group, divide the number excluded by the number enrolled

4. Divide the rate for African-American students by the rate for White students

slide36

Additional information on calculating the Relative Rate Index (RRI) can be found at

http://www.dcjs.virginia.gov/juvenile/dmc

slide37

How does the RRI differ from the “Disproportionate Representation Index” (DRI)?

  • DRI compares the percentage of a specific racial/ethnic group being arrested, or expelled from school, or suspended, etc., to the percentage that group made up of the total population.
slide38

Recall from our earlier discussion (

  • Under-representation:
    • (% of students with ODR) – (% of students enrolled) = -X
    • Example: 55-74 = -19 (negative #)
  • Over-representation:
    • (% of students with ODR) – (% of students enrolled) = +X
    • Example: 45-26 = 19 (positive #)
  • Easily understood when graphed. See chart →
using the same hypothetical data to calculate the rri
Using the same hypothetical data to calculate the RRI:
  • White rate = 55/74 = 0.74
  • Minority rate = 45/26 = 1.73
  • RRI = Minority rate / White rate = 1.73/0.74 = 2.33
  • Means Minorities are more than twice as likely (in this example) to be suspended as Whites.
  • Useful for comparing from one year to the next or from one school to another.
to study changes in the discipline gap in diverse schools
To study changes in the discipline gap in “diverse” Schools
  • We used data only from schools with some ethnic and racial diversity, operationally defined as at least
  • > .05% and < .95% CLD students
  • Included schools with some change, up or down, in their RRI from 2006-2007 to 2007-2008 for Out-of-School Suspensions.
number of students suspensions
Number of Students, Suspensions
  • The total number of students enrolled in 2007-2008 was 58,564.
  • White students = 32,220
  • African American students = 14,398.
  • Other students = 11,946
  • Days of Out-of-School Suspension:
  • 26,209
average rri in 2007 2008
Average RRI in 2007-2008
  • African American to White
  • Over all average RRI for all the schools:
  • 4.46 (SD = 5.83)
  • Means African Americans, on average, were more than 4 times as likely to be suspended out as Whites – in these schools that were apparently trying to use SWPBS (taking the time to use SWIS and the EBS Survey online).
  • But the schools varied and the way they changed over time also varied.
divided the 94 schools into 2 groups
Divided the 94 schools into 2 groups
  • Group 1 – “DOWN” (n = 53)
    • RRI went down (reduced their discipline gap) from the 1st year to the 2nd year of the study
  • Group 2 – “UP” (n = 41)
    • RRI went up (worse discipline gap) from 1st year to 2nd year of study.
comparing the 2 groups
Comparing the 2 groups
  • Group 1 “Down”
  • 43% Free/reduced price lunch eligible
  • 46% CLD students
  • ODR rate ave. 0.744
  • (SD = 1.276) (~ 1 per day per 100 students)
  • 25% African American
  • Group 2 “Up”
  • 49% Free/reduced price lunch eligible
  • 48% CLD students
  • ODR rate ave. 0.724
  • (SD = 1.250) (~ 1 per day per 100 students)
  • 24% African American
comparing changes ebs survey improvement with rri reduction
Comparing Changes EBS Survey Improvement with RRI Reduction
  • Multiple regression analyses for EBS subscales
  • We examined the statistical significance of Standardized Beta Coefficients to identify EBS items representing specific SWPBS strategies that improved and
  • were positively associated with decreases in RRI
multiple linear regression predicting rri from ebs survey items
Multiple Linear Regression: Predicting RRI from EBS Survey Items
  • Used 2007-2008 data
  • 5 survey items were statistically significantly (p < .05) associated with the RRI and had a negative (that’s good in this situation) Standardized Beta Coefficient.
slide52

Expected student behaviors are taught directly. (School Wide Item 2.)Beta = -.549

  • All staff are involved directly or indirectly in management of non-classroom settings. (Non-classroom Item 9.) Beta = -.505
  • School-wide expected student behaviors apply to non-classroom settings. (Non-classroom Item 1.) Beta = -.479
slide53

School-wide behavior support team has a budget for (a) teaching students, (b) on-going rewards, and (c) annual staff planning. (School Wide Item 15.) Beta =-.402

  • Expected student behavior & routines in classrooms are stated positively & defined clearly. (Classroom Item 1) Beta = -.366
top 10 schools top 10 strategies
Top 10 Schools’ Top 10 Strategies
  • What did the schools that reduced their discipline gap most, do differently?
  • Looked as the EBS Survey items that changed the most – showing improvement in implementation -- for the schools that had the greatest reductions in RRI.
these 3 were mentioned most often equally often by 6 of the top 10 schools each
These 3 were mentioned most often, equally often (by 6 of the top 10 schools each):
  • Staff receives regular opportunities for developing and improving active supervision skills. (Non-classroom Item 7)
  • Status of student behavior and management practices are evaluated quarterly from data. (Non-classroom Item 8)
  • Booster training activities for students are developed, modified, & conducted based on school data. (School Wide Item 14)
the next 7 were mentioned next most often equally often by 4 of the top 10 schools each
The next 7 were mentioned next most often, equally often (by 4 of the top 10 schools each)
  • Significant family &/or community members are involved when appropriate & possible. (Individual Item 6)
  • School includes formal opportunities for families to receive training on behavioral support/positive parenting strategies. (Individual Item 7)
  • School-wide expected student behaviors are taught in non-classroom settings. (Non-classroom Item 2)
slide57

Problem behaviors receive consistent consequences. (Classroom Item 5)

  • Options exist to allow classroom instruction to continue when problem behavior occurs. (School Wide Item 7)
  • Procedures are in place to address emergency/dangerous situations. (School Wide Item 8)
  • School-wide behavior support team has a budget for (a) teaching students, (b) on-going rewards, and (c) annual staff planning. (School Wide Item 15)
recommendations for future research
Recommendations for future research
  • More research is needed to describe how the teaching and acknowledgement of expected student behavior can be delivered in a culturally appropriate manner.
  • Future research could benefit from:
    • more complete ethnicity data, especially in light of the new federal regulations on reporting race and ethnicity that will take effect in 2010-2011 (National Forum on Educational Statistics, 2008) and
    • data from direct observations and interviews in addition to data from records and surveys.
references
References

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health. (2003). Out-of-school suspension and expulsion. Pediatrics, 112, 1206-1209. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/112/5/1206

Cartledge, G. & Johnson, C.T. (2004). School violence and cultural sensitivity. In J. C. Conoley & A. P. Goldstein (Eds.) School violence intervention: A practical handbook. 2nd ed. (pp. 441-482). New York: Guilford Press.

Cartledge, G. & Milburn, J.F. (1996). Cultural diversity and social skill instruction: Understanding ethnic and gender differences. Champaign, IL; Research Press. Cartledge, G. & Kourea, L. (2008). Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities. Exceptional Children 74(3), 351-371.

Cartledge, G., Sentelle, J., Loe, S., Lambert, M.C., & Reed, E.S. (2001). To be young, gifted, and black? A case study of positive interventions within an inner-city classroom of African American students. Journal of Negro Education, 70(4), 243-254.

Cartledge, G., Singh, A., & Gibson, L. (2008). Practical behavior-management techniques to close the accessibility gap for students who are culturally and linguistically diverse. Preventing School Failure 52(3), 29- 38.

Coutinho, M.J. & Oswald, D.P. (2000). Disproportionate representation in special education: A synthesis and recommendations. Journal of Child and Family Studies 9(2), 135-156.

Fletcher, J. (2008). Adolescent depression: Diagnosis, treatment, and educational attainment. Health Economics, 17, 1215-1235.

Gregory, A. & Weinstein, R. (2008). The discipline gap and African Americans: Defiance or cooperation in the high school classroom. Journal of School Psychology 46, 455-475.

Hershfeldt, P. A., Sechrest, R., Pell, K. L., Rosenberg, M. S., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Double-Check: A framework of cultural responsiveness applied to classroom behavior. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 6(2) Article 5. Retrieved from http://escholarship.bc.edu/education/tecplus/vol6/iss2/art5

slide60

Kaufman, J.S., Jaser, S.S., Vaughan, E.L., Reynolds, J.S., Di Donato, J., Bernard, S.N. et al. (2010). Patterns in office discipline referral data by grade, race/ethnicity, and gender. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 12, 44-54.

Krezmien, M. P., Leone, P. E., & Achilles, G. M. (2006). Suspension, race, and disability: Analysis of statewide practices and reporting. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14, 217-226.

Lewis, T. J., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective behavior support: A systems approach to proactive school-wide management. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31(6), 1-24.

May, S., Ard, W., Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H., Glasgow, A., Sugai, G., & Sprague, J. R. (2006). School-wide information system. Eugene: Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon.

McLaughlin, K. A., Hilt, L. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2007). Racial/ethnic differences in internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 35, 801-816.

National Forum on Educational Statistics, Race/Ethnicity Data Implementation Task Force. (2008). Managing an identity crisis: Forum guide to implementing new federal race and ethnicity categories (NFES 2008-802). Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Raffaele Mendez, L. M., & Knoff, H. M. (2003). Who gets suspended from school and why: A demographic analysis of schools and disciplinary infractions in a large school district. Education and Treatment of Children, 26(1), 30-51.

Sailor, W., Dunlap, G., Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of Positive Behavior Supports. A volume in the Issues in Clinical Child Psychology series, M. Roberts (Series Ed.). New York:  Springer.

Skiba, R. J., Horner, R. H., Chung, C., Rausch, M. K., May, S., & Tobin, T. (in review). Race is not neutral: A national investigation of African American and Latino disproportionality in school discipline.

Skiba, R.J., Michael, R.S., Nardo, A.C., & Peterson, R. (2002). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. Urban Review, 34, 317-342.

Skiba, R.J., Poloni-Staudinger, L., Simmons, A., Feggins-Azziz, L. & Chung, C. (2005). Unproven links: Can poverty explain ethnic disproportionality in special education? Journal of Special Education, 39, 130-144.

slide61

Stillwell, R. (2009). Public school graduates and dropouts from the common core of data: School year 2006-2007. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010313.pdf.

Sugai, G., Horner, R.H., & Todd, A. (2000) Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (EBS-SAS). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.

Theriot, M. T., Craun, S.W., & Dupper, D.R. (in press). Multilevel evaluation of factors predicting school exclusion among middle and high school students. Children and Youth Services Review. Retrieved from http://www.elsevier.com/locate/childyouth.

Tobin, T. J. (2005). Parents’ guide to functional assessment (Third edition). University of Oregon, College of Education, Educational and Community Supports, Eugene. Retrieved August 8, 2009, from http://uoregon.edu/~ttobin/Tobin-par-3.pdf as “Parents’ Guide, 3rd Edition.”

U.S. Department of Education (October 19, 2007). Final guidance on maintaining, collecting, and reporting racial and ethnic data to the U.S. Department of Education. Federal Register at http://www.ed.gov/legislation/FedRegister/other/2007-4/101907c.pdf

Varela, R. E., Sanchez-Sosa, J. J., Biggs, B. K., & Luis, T. M. (2008). Anxiety symptoms and fears in Hispanic and European American children: Cross-cultural measurement equivalence. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30, 132-145; Erratum, p. 162.

Vincent, C. G. (2008). Schools’ use of SWIS to examine their ODR patterns across ethnic categories. Research Brief. Eugene: University of Oregon, Educational and Community Supports.

Vincent, C.G. & Tobin, T.J. (in press). The relationship between implementation of school-wide positive behavior support and disciplinary exclusion of students from various ethnic backgrounds with and without disabilities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

Zayas, L. H., Lester, R. J., Cabassa, L. J., & Fortuna, L. R. (2005). Why do many Latina teens attempt suicide? A conceptual model. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75 (2), 275-287.

Zhang, D., Katsiyannis, A., & Herbst, M. (2004). Disciplinary exclusions in special education: A four-year analysis. Behavioral Disorders, 29, 337-347.