Cognitive/Behavioral Learning Theories Angie F. Torres EDTC 3320 M.Crosslin
Introduction: Cognitive Behavioral • Is focused on internal states that pertain to the “black box” of the human mind. It is valuable for understanding how people learn and can be observing beyond the behavior in order to be able to explain brain-based learning. • Is a result of interaction between the person and his environment, which leads to the study of the behavior that can be observed and measured . This behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states of consciousness.
Cognitive Learning Theorists Howard Gardner July 11,1943 - present
Cognitive Theorists-Howard Gardner believes that: • all humans can learn in many different ways. • the mind change is a slow method that can be actively and powerfully influenced. • Teacher’s should take advantage of this intelligences and allow students the chance to learn and demonstrate what they have learned. • changes in behavior are observed and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learners mind.
Gardner’s 8 Multiple IntelligentLearning Theories • Bodily-Kinesthetic-movement and doing • Interpersonal-interaction • Verbal-Linguistic-spoken or written words • Logical-Mathematical-logic, inductive, deductive • Naturalistic-one’s natural surroundings • Intrapersonal-prefer to work alone • Spatial-strong visual memory/artistically inclined • Musical-rhythmic intelligence
Cognitive Theory impacts teaching /training by: • allowing people’s cognitive abilities to progress through fundamental transformation that contribute to people’s intellectual development • the development of the mental process where knowledge is acquired, stored, and retrieved to solve problems. • allowing human beings to discover learning by using motivation, decision making, and simulations.
Cognitive Theory at Harvard Graduate School of Education: • Project Zero is an educational research group with a mission to help create learning communities with independent learners . They want to contribute to the understanding of human cognitive development and the processes of learning in the arts and other disciplines: and to promote critical and creative thinking. Project Zero places the learner at the center of the educational process, accepting how they learn in different ways and at different ages as well as in diverse cultures.
Behavioral Learning Theorist Burrhus Frederick Skinner March 20,1904-August 18, 1990
B.F. Skinner Behaviorist Theorist believed that: • Psychologists should concentrate on observables happening in our environment and our behavior. • All behaviors are acquired through conditioning that is used to learn new information and behaviors. • Learning is a change in behavior as a result of experience that can be measured. • Two types of learning existed: Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory: • Describes the effects of the consequences of a particular behavior and what is going to happen in the future because of that behavior and it’s consequence. • Allows the response followed by a reinforcer to be strengthened so it will occur again.
4 Types of Operant Conditioningare: • Positive Reinforcement : Something good can start so behavior increases. • Negative Reinforcement: strengthens a behavior because a negative condition is stopped –behavior increases. • A dolphin gets a fish for doing a trick-behavior increases. • Driving in bad traffic can be avoided by leaving earlier in the morning- behavior increases .
Punishment • Positive Punishment: weakens a behavior because a negative condition is introduced. • Negative Punishment: are less likely to repeat a behavior that results in the loss of a GOOD thing. • The driver’s speeding results in a ticket and a fine • The dolphin trainer walks away with the fish bucket when the dolphin acts aggressive.
Extinction Ex. Skinner BoxThe rat no longer receives any more pellets after a few futile attempts he stops his bar-pressing behavior • If reinforcement fails to occur after a behavior has been reinforced in the past, the behavior might extinguish. If you are not expecting to gain a reward every time you accomplish a behavior, you’re not likely to stop the first few times your action fails .
Behavioral Theory impacts Teaching/Training by: • Motivating the student to complete a task by providing a praise or a grade. At other times the reward may be a privilege of engaging in self-selected activity. Supplying the correct answer and being informed that it is the correct answer which motivates the student to go on to the next frame, and as students works through the program, the desired behavior is shaped.
Behavioral Theory at Southern Illinois University • Behavioral Analysis & Theory Program The graduates of the program are prepared to assess the needs of individuals. They will be ready to assist those individuals in acquiring the skills to maximize their capabilities. Their studies also allow them to evaluate effectiveness of interventions and teach other service providers techniques for assessment, training, and evaluation.
Conclusion With Behaviorism and Cognitivism we have learned that learning is defined as a change in behavior as a result of experience that can be measured. Learning is also a change in mental representations and associations brought about by experiences. Learners are not passively influenced by environmental events but are active participants in the thinking learning process. Instructional Designers must be able to identify different types of learning in order to design efficient and effective instruction.
References: • Brown, Abbie & Green Timothy D (2006). The Essentials of Instructional Design, California State University, Fullerton • Howard Gardner, Retrieved June 16, 2010 http://www.howardgardner.com • B.F. Skinner, Retrieved June 17, 2010 http://www.webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html • Psychology Theories-Key Theories in Psychology Retrieved June 17, 2010 http://psychology.about.com/od/psychology101/u/psychology-theories.htm • Behavior Analysis & Theory Program, Southern Illinois Univ. Carbondale Retrieved June 17, 2010 http://www.bat.siuc.edu