Behavioral Neurology Behavioral Neurology (Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology) - is dealing with disorders of higher nervous functions resulting from structural brain damage (directed attention, mood, gnostic functions, cognitive functions, memory, …)
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(level of consciousness directed attention cognition, mood, speech)
After registering target digit in presented digit chain a subject has to knock on a table
– hipp,entorh, perirh, GP)
long-term m. (> 1 min)
Explicite memorysemantic m.
(declarative) (encyclopedic knowledge)
(visual x verbal, recall x recognition)
short-term (working) m. (30-40 s) (digit span)
procedural m. (completing word fragment, m. for movements)
demonstrated by completion priming
of tasks that do not require
= the ability to acquire a motor skills or cognitive routines by experience
(more extensive reg. – MT+LT,P,O)
(DLPFC + associative visual and auditory areas)
(subcortical circuits – BG, cerebellum + ctx visual, motor,..)
H O S P - - - -
Dysphasia - disorders of speech (Motor or expressive /Broca΄s/ dysphasia; Sensory or receptive /Wernicke΄s/ dysphasia; Global dysphasia). DOMINANT HEMISPHERE
Aprosodia – impairment of affective component of speech (speech melody, intonation, voice timbre, use of pauses, etc.) řečově nedominantní hemisféra). NON-DOMINANT HEMISPHERE
Dressing apraxia - difficulties in dressing, e.g. Getting arm into pyjamas, …
Constructional apraxia – innability to copy geometrical pattern
Alexia - disturbance of reading (angular or lingual g. within dominant hemisphere).
Agraphia - disturbance of writing (GFM or PO junction of the dominant hemisphere).
Acalculia - disturbance of calculation (dominant hemisphere, also within the Gerstmann΄s syndrome – angular g.).
Agnosias are related to the lesions within associative cortices and their very surrounding but also with disconnections (impairment of the corpus callosum or long fibers within the white matter).
Unfortunately in the practice agnosias are often associated with other neurologic deficits (aphasia, apraxia, behavioral disorder)! Resulting clinical manifestation is therefore highly individual.
Dissociations between perception and consciousness after brain damage
(conscious perception and unconscious /implicit, covert/ perception)
Interview about writing, eating with spoon, throwing a ball, kicking, step; tapping – domin. hand 50/min, nondomin. hand 45/min.
Left hemisphere is dominant in 95% right-handers and 60% left-handers!
Left hemisphere– dominant for speech and motor functions, reading, writing, counting, recognition of colors, verbal memory, important for linguistic thinking, ...
Right hemisphere– dominant for attentional functions, prosopognosia, prosodia (affective component of speech), nonverbal communication (ability to „read from face“), visuo-spatial perception, visual and topographical memory, recognition of music, …
Quite frequent, especially in elderly patients (mostly they are caused by pharmacological polytherapy)
Depression, delirium, psychosis, agitation, aggression