Immune response immunization
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Immune Response Immunization. Characteristics of Acquired Immunity. Recognition of non-self Antigenic specificity Memory. Figure 15.18. Naturally Acquired Active Immunity. The body responds to antigens that enter naturally, such as during infections.

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Characteristics of acquired immunity
Characteristics of Acquired Immunity

Recognition of non-self

Antigenic specificity


Naturally acquired active immunity
Naturally Acquired Active Immunity

The body responds to

antigens that enter naturally,

such as during infections.

Naturally acquired passive immunity
Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity

Antibodies are transferred

from mother to offspring,

either across the placenta

(IgG) or in breast milk (IgA).

Artificially acquired active immunity
Artificially Acquired Active Immunity

Healthcare workers introduce

antigens in vaccines; the body

responds with humoral

immune responses

Artificially acquired passive immunity
Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity

Healthcare workers introduce

preformed antibodies

(obtained from immune

individuals) as antisera and

antitoxins into a patient.

Immune serum globulin isg aka gamma globulin
Immune Serum Globulin (ISG), aka Gamma Globulin

  • Contains immunoglobulin extracted from the pooled blood of at least 1,000 human donors

  • Processing concentrates the antibodies to increase potency and eliminates potential pathogens

  • Method of choice for preventing measles and hepatitis A and in replacing antibodies in immunodeficient patients

  • Injected intramuscularly

  • Protection lasts 2-3 months

Antisera and antitoxins of animal origin
Antisera and Antitoxins of Animal Origin

  • Can be used when a human immune globulin is not available

  • Example: sera produced in horses for diphtheria, botulism, and spider and snake bites


  • Vaccination: exposing a person to material that is antigenic but not pathogenic

  • Stimulate a primary and secondary anamnestic response to prime the immune system for future exposure to a virulent pathogen

  • Two types of Vaccines

    • Inactivated

    • Attenuated

Genetically engineered vaccines
Genetically Engineered Vaccines

  • Recombinant DNA technology

  • Trojan horse vaccine

    • Genetic material from an infectious agent is inserted into a live carrier microbe that is nonpathogenic

    • The recombinant microbe multiplies and expresses the foreign genes

    • The vaccine recipient will be immunized against the microbial antigens

  • DNA vaccines

Route of administration and side effects of vaccines
Route of Administration and Side Effects of Vaccines

  • Most vaccines are injected by subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intradermal routes

  • Only a few oral vaccines available, even though they have advantages

  • Some vaccines required the addition of an adjuvant

  • Common side effects

    • Local reactions at the injection site

    • Fever

    • Allergies

  • Some patients experience reactions to the medium rather than the antigens

To vaccinate why whom and when
To Vaccinate: Why, Whom, and When?

  • Not only confers protection to the individual receiving the vaccine, but it also protects public heath

  • Herd immunity

    • Collective immunity through mass immunization confers indirect protection on the nonimmune members

    • Important force in preventing epidemics