Immune response
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Immune Response. Nonspecific Immune Response. Inflammation Swelling, redness, pain, itching, warmth Histamines cause the blood vessels to spread open WBCs squeeze out of the bloodstream WBCs attack the pathogen. Nonspecific Immune Response. Fever

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Nonspecific immune response
Nonspecific Immune Response

  • Inflammation

    • Swelling, redness, pain, itching, warmth

    • Histamines cause the blood vessels to spread open

      • WBCs squeeze out of the bloodstream

    • WBCs attack the pathogen


Nonspecific immune response1
Nonspecific Immune Response

  • Fever

    • Chemicals cause the hypothalamus to increase body temp

    • Stimulates interferon production

      • Prevents virus reproduction

    • Increases rate of WBC maturity


Specific immune response
Specific Immune Response

  • Body must be able to identify its own cells

  • Antigens: proteins markers on the surface of pathogens (uniforms)

  • Immunity: body produces memory cells to “remember” specific antigens




Immune response

T cell binds to the antigen presenting cell.

Protein activates T cell

Antigen

Presenting

phagocyte

T cell

T cell


Immune response

T cell begins to divide into two types of cells:

Memory T Cells

Activated T Cells

T cell

Memory T Cells: used at a later date if the pathogen returns

Activated T Cells: fight current pathogen

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell


Immune response

Activated T cells bind to infected body cells that show the proper antigens

Infected

body cell

showing

antigens

Activated T Cells

Memory T Cells

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell


Immune response

Infected body cell bursts proper antigens

Infected body

cell showing

antigens

T cell

T cell

Activated T Cells

Memory T Cells

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell

T cell


Immune response

Pathogen binds to the antibodies of a B-cell proper antigens

pathogen

Inactivated

B cell


Immune response

B-cell engulfs the pathogen proper antigens

pathogen

Inactivated

B cell


Immune response

Pathogen antigens displayed on cell membrane proper antigens

Inactivated

B cell


Immune response

T-cell attaches to the antigens of the B-cell proper antigens

Inactivated

B cell

T cell


Immune response

B-cell becomes activated proper antigens

Inactivated

B cell

Activated

B cell

T cell


Immune response

B-cell divides into two types of cells: proper antigens

Memory B-cells

Activated B-cells

Activated

B cell

Activated

B cell

Activated

B cell

Activated

B cell


Immune response

Activated B-cells produce and release thousands of antibodies each

Memory B-cells: Reserve cells to be used at a later date if the pathogen returns

Activated B-Cells: used to fight the current pathogen

Activated

B cell

Activated

B cell

antibody

antibody

antibody

Activated

B cell

Activated

B cell

antibody

antibody

antibody


Immune response

Activated B-cells produce and release thousands of antibodies each

pathogen

pathogen

pathogen

Memory B-cells: Reserve cells to be used at a later date if the pathogen returns

Activated B-Cells: used to fight the current pathogen

Activated

B cell

antibody

antibody

antibody

Activated

B cell

antibody

antibody

antibody


Immune response

Antibodies bind to other pathogens of the same kind antibodies each

pathogen

pathogen

pathogen

antibody

antibody

antibody

antibody

antibody

antibody

Activated B-Cells: used to fight the current pathogen

Activated

B cell

Activated

B cell


Immune response

Phagocytes eat the pathogen clump antibodies each

antibody

antibody

antibody

antibody

antibody

antibody

Activated B-Cells: used to fight the current pathogen

PHAGOCYTE

Activated

B cell

Activated

B cell


Vaccination
Vaccination antibodies each

  • Prevents infections (not a cure)

  • Memory cells developed without actually getting the disease

  • Vaccine

    • Contains antigens of a pathogen

    • Weakened pathogen is injected

    • Stimulates the production of memory cells

  • Speeds up immune response if you encounter the unweakened virus