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immune response

IMMUNE RESPONSE

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

slide11

11

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

immune response a complex mechanisms
Immune Response – A complex Mechanisms

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

the immune response
The Immune response

An immune response is what the immune system does when confronted by an antigen.

An immune response is an elaborate interplay between antigen, non-specific defenses, and B and T lymphocytes.

The process involves direct contact (cells, molecules bind to receptors on cell surfaces) and cytokines (messenger molecules) that also bind to receptors on cell surfaces.

16

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

results of immune response
Results of Immune Response
  • Beneficial,
  • Indifferent,
  • Injurious,

Reactions follow against any antigen either living or dead.

May respond in

Specific or No reactivity or Tolerance.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

classification of immune response
Classification of Immune Response

1 Humoral

2 Cell Mediated type

  • May work together.
  • May work in opposite way,
  • One may be more active than other.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

immune response humoral cell mediated
Active against Most

Extra cellular Bacterial pathogens

Viruses,

Participates in Type

1 , 2, 3, Hypersensitivity reactions

Auto Immune Disorders.

Protects against,

Fungus, Viruses IC bacterial infections

Rejection of Homograft ,GVH,

Immunological survelliance,cancer

T cell mediated Hypersensitivity

Auto Immune Disorders

Immune ResponseHumoral / Cell Mediated

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

humoral immune response
Humoral Immune Response
  • Produces Antibodies B Cell – Plasma cell
  • Antigen Presented to Immunocompetent

cells Processed –

  • Secretion of Antibodies,

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

production of antibodies
Production of Antibodies
  • Immune response is brought about by three types of cells
  • 1 APC macrophages, and dendritic cells,
  • 2 T Cell and 3 B cells
  • The first step is capture and processing of antigens by APC and their presentation with the association of appropriate MHC molecule to T cells
  • However some polysaccharides and simple molecules with repeating epitopes do not require T Cell participation

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

stages of antibody mediated immune response
Stages of Antibody mediated immune response
  • Contain three stages

1 The entry of antigen, its distribution and fate in the tissues and its contact with appropriate immunocompetent cells

2 The secretion of antigen by cells and the control of the antibody forming process

3 The secretion of antibody its distribution in tissues and body fluids and manifestations of its effects.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

slide24

Pathogens damage tissue in a variety of ways

*

*e.g., LPS; a polyclonal B cell activator, also see next slide

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

pattern of antibody production
Pattern of Antibody production.
  • A Lag Phase
  • A Log Phase raise of antibody levels,
  • Plateau
  • A phase of Decline.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

primary and secondary immune responses
Primary and Secondary Immune Responses
  • A single injection of antigen helps in sensitizing or priming of immunocpompent cell producing particular antibody than in the actual elaboration of high levels of antibody.
  • Effective levels of antibody are usually induced by only subsequent injection of antigens.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

booster dose
Booster Dose
  • The antibody response to an initial antigenic stimuli differs qualitatively and quantitatively from response to subsequent stimuli with the same antigen
  • The former primary response and later secondary response

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

primary and secondary response
Primary and Secondary Response
  • The primary response is slow, sluggish and short lived with long lag phase and does not persist for long time
  • The secondary response is prompt powerful and prolonged with short or negligible lag phase and with higher level of antibodies

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

types of antibody response
Types of Antibody Response,
  • Initial Antigenic Stimulus (Primary Response Ig M
  • Response is slow and short lived,
  • Secondary Response Ig G
  • Response is Prompt ,Powerful and Prolonged

Higher level of Antibodies and Lasts longer,

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

how long a antibody be active
How long a Antibody be active
  • The duration of the lag phase and persistence of the antibody dependent on the nature of the antigen
  • In diphtheria toxoid the lag phase in the primary response may be long as 2 -3 weeks
  • In pneumococcal polysaccharides antigens the antibodies are detected in few hours

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

priming and booster doses
Priming and Booster doses
  • The first injection is known as priming dose and subsequent injection as booster dose.
  • With live vaccines a single dose is sufficient a single dose is sufficient as multiplication of the organisms in the body provides a continuous antigenic stimulus that acts as both the priming and booster dose

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

fate of antigens
Fate of Antigens
  • Depends on the physical and chemical nature of antigens, dose and route of entry
  • Whether induced primarily or secondarily
  • The antigens introduced by IV are rapidly localized in the spleen, liver, bone marrow kidney and lungs
  • Broken down by RES cells excreted in urine
  • About 70 – 80 % eliminated in one or two days

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

fate of antigens33
Fate of Antigens
  • When antigens are introduced by subcutaneously are mainly localized in the draining lymph nodes only small amounts being found in the spleen
  • The pariculate antigens are removed from circulation in two phase – the first is antigens are engulfed by phagocytic cells broken down and eliminated

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

fate of antigen
Fate of Antigen
  • With the appearance of specific antibody the phase of immune elimination begins
  • The antigen and antibody complexes are rapidly phagocytized results in disappearance of antigen from circulation

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

immunoglobulin controlling genes and generation of diversity
Immunoglobulin controlling genes and Generation of Diversity.
  • Genes control Antibody production and Diversity,
  • V and C regions
  • Kappa light chain / Lambda light chain
  • Rearrangements produce enormous diversity variety of Immunoglobulin
  • Combinations produce random selections.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

immunoglobulin switching
Immunoglobulin Switching.
  • Ig M specific for Antigen is produced.
  • Switch to others

Ig G - Ig A -Ig E

But retain the same specificity,

But carry different Biological activities

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

relation of dose and nature of antigen to antibody production
Relation of Dose and Nature of Antigen to Antibody production.
  • Single Dose Sensitizing.
  • Subsequent Dose More effective.
  • Non Living Vaccines multiple doses.
  • Living Vaccines one Dose is productive.
  • Fate of Antigen

I V eliminate faster, in 2-3 days, in spleen.

SC Lymph nodes Little in spleen

Engulfed by Phagocytes Broken Down and eliminated.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

fate of antigen in the host
Fate of Antigen in the Host
  • Ag+Ab from complexes and Phagocytes will engulf and Disappear -- Immune Elimination.

Immune Complexes can cause damage.

Proteins eliminated in 1-2 weeks,

Polysaccharides months to years.

Pneumococcal polysaccharides up to 20 years.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

production of antibodies39
Production of Antibodies.
  • Immune Responses to Antigen,
  • Antigen Presenting Cells APC

Macrophages

Dendritic Cells

T and B Lymphocytes,

Capture by APC ( Proteins RBC )

T Cell take active part.

T Cell Independent - Polysaccharides.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

production of antibodies needs help and coordination with other structures
Production of Antibodies needs help and coordination with other structures
  • CD4 Helper cells MHC II
  • CD8 Cytotoxic cells MHC
  • TH cells require two signals IL1
  • Next produce IL2

Produce cytokines

IL4 IL5 IL6 B cells stimulated

Produce antibody producing plasma cells produced

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

factors influencing antibody production42
Factors Influencing Antibody Production
  • Under genetic control,
  • May be responder or Non responder.- defines the capacity of the individual to respond or not respond
  • Ir (Immune response genes) control this property.
  • Age The embryos is immunologic ally immature

During the embryonic life the developing lymphoid cells come into contact with all the tissue antigens of the body released by cellular breakdown – lead to elimination of self antigens

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

immunity in neonates
Immunity in Neonates

Early mechanisms of self tolerance.

-> 3-6 months Maternal antibodies,

Ig G 5-7 years

Ig A 10-15 years

B cell responses to most proteins and other T cells dependent develop early.

The responses to Polysaccharide and other T cell independent antigens develop later.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

humoral immunity in vivo uses
Humoral Immunityin vivo uses
  • Immunoglobulin IgA can stop colonization of mucosal surface.
  • It interferes with the attachment molecular adhesions present on the bacterial surface.
  • Bacterial exotoxins are inhibited – as the antibodies can prevent interaction of enzymes with substrate.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

humoral immunity in vivo uses45
Humoral immunityin vivo uses
  • Antibodies can kill bacteria.
  • Antibodies can affect the specific transport systems and deprive the energy needs of the bacteria.
  • Affect the motility
  • Reduces the invasion
  • Antibodies can cause agglutination
  • Stimulate the phagocytosis, and complement activity.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

other factors influencing the antibody production
Other Factors influencing the Antibody production
  • Nutrition

Malnutrition

Humoral reduced,

CMI reduced

Route of administration

Large particles – increased.

Application to skin CMI

Deltoid more effective

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

other factors
Other factors,
  • Size and Dose has relation
  • Massive Dose paralysis.
  • Anamnestic reaction
  • Administration of Multiple antigens

Triple antigen,

Freund’s Adjuvant. Increases with Tubercle Bacilli

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

uses of administration of antibodies
Uses of Administration of Antibodies
  • Passive administration of Antibodies eg Hyper immune globulins,

Sensitization issues in

Rh negative mothers.

The effect occurs due to feedback mechanism

The antibody may also combine with antigen and prevent its availability for the immunocompetent cells.

Rh –ve mother + Rh+ ve fetus Administration of Anti-Rh globulin immediately following delivery

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

administration of immunoglobulin s
Administration of Immunoglobulin's
  • IV administration has immunomodulation effect
  • Administered in Thrombocytopenia's, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

adjuvants
Adjuvants
  • Defined as substance that enhances the immunogenicity of an antigen.
  • Eg Aluminum hydroxide or phosphate
  • Freund’s incomplete adjuvant – Incorporation of protein antigen in water phase of water in oil emulsion, it causes delay of release of antigen from the site of injection and prolong the antigenic stimulus.
  • Freund’s complete adjuvant – contains also the suspension of killed tubercle bacilli.
  • The effect is due to MDP ( muramyl dipeptide )

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

super antigens
Super antigens,
  • Protein Molecules,

eg Staphylococcal Enterotoxin,

Activate large number of T cells,

Irrespective of Antigenic specificity,

Usually few cells are stimulated ( 0.001%)

Massive stimulation leads to Massive out porins of T cell cytokines,

Multi organ Dysfunction

Staphylococcal Shock syndrome

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

super antigens52
Super antigens,
  • Protein Molecules,

Eg Staphylococcal Enterotoxin,

Activate large number of T cells,

Irrespective of Antigenic specificity,

Usually few cells are stimulated ( 0.001%)

Massive stimulation leads to Massive out pouring of T cell cytokines,

Multi organ Dysfunction

Staphylococcal Shock syndrome

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

immunosuppressive agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
  • X rays,
  • Corticosteroids
  • Anti metabolites.
  • Cytotoxic Chemicals

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

monoclonal antibodies
Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Kohler and Milstein ( Nobel Prize 1984 )
  • A single antibody forming cell or clone produces Antibodies against single antigen,
  • Antibodies are usually polyclonal,
  • Clone of Lymphocytes – Monoclonal antibodies.

Useful in Diagnostic / Research work.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

how hybridoma created
How Hybridoma Created.
  • Immunize Mice with Antigen,
  • Obtain spleen cells Fuse with Mouse Myeloma cells

Grow then in HPRT medium Hypoxanthine,Phosphoribosyl transfeerase

Transfer to HAT Medium ) Hypoxanthine, Aminoptren and Thymidine Medium }

Lead to formation of Hybridoma.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

hybridoma technology produce monoclonal antibodies
Hybridoma Technology Produce Monoclonal Antibodies

What is Hybridoma

Fusion of Spleen cells + Myeloma Cells,

Attains the capacity to produce

1. Antibody producing capacity.

2. Multiply indefinitely,

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

contents of hybridoma
Contents of Hybridoma
  • Splenic cells + Myeloma cells

Produce Monoclonal Antibodies,

Propagated by injecting intraperitoneally

In Mice -

Frozen

Monoclonal are similar in Ig class and other characters.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

uses of monoclonal antibodies
Uses of Monoclonal Antibodies

1 Research applications,

2. Diagnostic.

3.Theraputic,

Mice Monoclonal are suitable for Humans,

Chimeras antibodies are created.

Grafting of Murine Monoclonal on CDR loops.

Antibodies can be used with Bacteriophages

Advances in Immunotherapy.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

immune response in cell mediated immunity cmi

Immune Response in Cell mediated ImmunityCMI

T Lymphocytes play the major role

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

cmi helps in
CMI helps in
  • Delayed hypersensitivity
  • Immunity in infections caused by Obligate and facultative intracellular parasites
  • Eg – Tuberculosis, Leprosy

Listeriosis, Brucellosis,

Fungi – Histoplasmosis, Cocccidiomysosis,Blastomycosis,

Parasites – Trypanosomiasis

In transplantation immunity,

Immunologioly in Transplantation, malignancy,

Pathogenesis of Autoimmune diseases

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

induction of cell mediated immunity
Induction of Cell Mediated Immunity
  • Depends on Nature of Antigenic stimulus
  • Best developed after following infection with intracellular parasites
  • Live vaccines highly stimulating
  • Killed vaccine not very effective
  • But effective if contains Freund type adjuvant.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

slide66

66

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

functions of t cells
Functions of T cells
  • Only T cell dependent antigens lead to development of CMI
  • Certain chemicals which come in contact with skin induces Delayed hypersensitivity
  • T Cell contain the specific receptor ( TCR )
  • One epitope ( Antigen ) on contact with receptor undergoes blast transformation
  • Leads to Clonal proliferation

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

functions of t cells68
Functions of T cells
  • Cytotoxic T cells recognize antigen on surface of virus infected cells, tumor cells, allograft cells with MHC I and sectored Lymhokines and destroy target cells

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

functions of t cells69
Functions of T cells
  • The stimulated cells undergoes blast transformation, Clonal proliferation
  • Leads to Effectors cells and Memory cells
  • T cell react on presentation with MHC
  • Helper T cells when presented on surface of macrophages or other cells complexes with MHC II molecule – leads to release of Biological Mediators Lymhokines – activate Macrophages and kills intracellular parasites

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

broad view on cytokines
Broad view on Cytokines
  • Cytokines are a category of signalling proteins and glycoproteins that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

cytokines
Cytokines
  • Cytokines have been classed as Lymhokines, interleukins, and chemokine's, based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, or target of action. Because cytokines are characterised by considerable redundancy and pleiotropism, such distinctions, allowing for exceptions, are obsolete.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

definitions
Definitions
  • Lymhokines Biologically active substance released by activated T Lymphocytes
  • Monokines – Substances secreted by Monocytes and Macrophages
  • Interleukins – Produces by lymphocytes which exert a regulatory effect on other cells
  • All above grouped under cytokines

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

definitions73
Definitions
  • Autocrine, if the cytokine acts on the cell that secretes it.
  • Paracrine, if the target is restricted to the immediate vicinity of a cytokine's secretion.
  • Endocrine, if the cytokine diffuses to distant regions of the body (carried by blood or plasma).
  • It seems to be a paradox that cytokines binding to antibodies have a stronger immune effect than the cytokine alone. This may lead to lower therapeutic doses.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

what are cytokines
What are Cytokines
  • They are peptide mediators, intracellular messengers, which regulate immunological, inflammatory and reparative host cell responses
  • They are potent hormones Active even at Fetomolar concentrations produced by widely distributed cells

( Lymphocytes, Macrophages, Platelets, and Fibroblasts.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

cytokines75
Cytokines
  • Cytokines may act on the cells that secrete them (Autocrine action), on nearby cells (paracrine action), or in some instances on distant cells (endocrine action)

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

cytokines have
Cytokines have
  • Paracrine effect – acts locally – near the producing cells
  • Having pleotrophic effects – Multiple effects on growth and differentiation of various cell types.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

important cytokines
Important Cytokines
  • Interleukin I 1979
  • Interleukin I divided into Alpha and Beta
  • IL1 is secreted by Macrophages, Monocytes other nucleated cells.
  • Stimulated by Antigens, Toxins, Injury, Inflammation,
  • Inhibited by
  • Cyclosporins,Corticosteiods,Prostaglandins

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

functions of interleukin 1
Functions of Interleukin 1
  • IL1 stimulates T cells and Produces IL2 and other Lymhokines
  • Helps B cell proliferation
  • Synthesizes Antibodies
  • Helps Neutrophils in Chemo taxis
  • Promotes Phagocytosis
  • Promotes Metabolic Physiological and inflammatory responses by action on Bone marrow

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

il1 initiates fever
IL1 initiates Fever
  • IL1 is crucial in promoting fever and called as Pyrogens.
  • With the help of Tumor Necrosis factor causes hematological changes in Septicemias, Shock and bacterial meningitis

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

other interleukins
Other Interleukins
  • Interleukins 2 Modulates the immune response
  • Major activator of T and B Lymphocytes
  • Stimulates cytotoxic T cells and Natural Killer cells.
  • Interleukin 3 Stimulates multilineage cells of the Hematopoietic system.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

other interleukins81
Other Interleukins
  • Interleukin 4 Acts as a Growth factor for T Lymphocytes
  • Interleukin 5 Causes the proliferation of activated B Lymphocytes
  • Interleukin 6

Produced by Stimulated B and T Lymphocytes

Induces the production of Immunoglobulin synthesis

Stimulates the Hepatocytes, nerve cells,Hematopoetic cells

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

theraputic uses of cytokines
Theraputic Uses of Cytokines
  • IL1,2,3 and colony stimulating factors are used in

Inflammatory diseases,

Infections,

Autoimmune diseases.

Neoplastic diseases and cancers

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

functions of cytokines
Functions of Cytokines
  • Autocrine, if the cytokine acts on the cell that secretes it.
  • Paracrine, if the target is restricted to the immediate vicinity of a cytokine's secretion.
  • Endocrine, if the cytokine diffuses to distant regions of the body (carried by blood or plasma).
  • It seems to be a paradox that cytokines binding to antibodies have a stronger immune effect than the cytokine alone. This may lead to lower therapeutic doses.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

properties of cytokines
Properties of Cytokines
  • Cytokines are small secreted proteins which mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They must be produced de novo in response to an immune stimulus. They generally (although not always) act over short distances and short time spans and at very low concentration.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

properties of cytokines87
Properties of Cytokines
  • They act by binding to specific membrane receptors, which then signal the cell via second messengers, often tyrosine kinases, to alter its behaviour (gene expression). Responses to cytokines include increasing or decreasing expression of membrane proteins (including cytokine receptors), proliferation, and secretion of effector molecules.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

properties of cytokines88
Properties of Cytokines
  • Cytokine is a general name; other names include lymphokine (cytokines made by lymphocytes), monokine (cytokines made by monocytes), chemokine (cytokines with chemotactic activities), and interleukin (cytokines made by one leukocyte and acting on other leukocytes).

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

other cytokines
Other Cytokines
  • Other groups of cytokines include interferons and chemokine's. Interferons IFNa and IFNb inhibit virus replication in infected cells, while IFNg also stimulates antigen-presenting cell MHC expression. Chemokine's attract leukocytes to infection sites. Chemokine's have conserved cysteine residues that allow them to be assigned to four groups.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

inhibitory cytokines
Inhibitory Cytokines
  • Some cytokines are predominantly inhibitory. For example, IL-10 and IL-13 inhibit inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

interferons

INTERFERONS

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

interferons93
Interferons
  • Primarily identified as Antiviral agents
  • Now classified as Cytokines
  • Interferons play an important role in the first line of defence against viral infections. They are part of the non-specific immune system and are induced at an early stage in viral infection – before the specific immune system has had time to respond..

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

dynamics of interferons
Dynamics of Interferons
  • Interferons are made by cells in response to an appropriate stimulus, and are released into the surrounding medium; they then bind to receptors on target cells and induce transcription of  approximately 20-30 genes in the target cells, and this results in an anti-viral state in the target cells.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

classification of interferons
Classification of Interferons
  • There are three classes of Interferons: Alpha, Beta and Gamma. Interferon Alpha and Beta are produced by many cell types

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

types of interferons
Types of Interferons
  • Interferon-alpha (leukocyte interferon) is produced by virus-infected leukocytes, etc
  • Interferon-beta (fibroblast interferon) is produced by virus-infected fibroblasts, or virus-infected epithelial cells, etc
  • Interferon-gamma  (immune interferon) is produced by certain activated T-cells and NK cells.
  • Interferon-gamma is made in response to antigen (including viral antigens) or mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

functions of interferons
Functions of Interferons
  • Interferons are within the cytokine family of proteins. Interferons are especially important because they enhance the immune system’s ability to recognize foreign invaders, enabling the system as a whole to function more effectively

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

interferons gama
Interferons Gama
  • Interferon-Gamma is involved in the regulation of immune response throughout the body. Interferon-Gamma is the signalling protein that gets the immune system as a whole ready for attack and fine tunes it to quickly and effectively get rid of foreign and unwanted intruders

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

uses of interferons
Uses of Interferons
  • Interferons-alpha and -beta have been used to treat various viral infections. One currently approved use for various types of interferon-a is in the treatment of certain cases of acute and chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

uses of interferons100
Uses of Interferons
  • Interferon-gamma has been used to treat a variety of disease in which macrophage activation might play an important role in recovery, eg. lepromatous leprosy, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis. Since interferons have anti-proliferative effects, they have also been used to treat certain tumours such as melanoma and Kaposi’s sarcoma.    

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

detection of cmi
Detection of CMI
  • The basic and earlier test was skin test for delayed hypersensitivity
  • Now other tests are available

Lymphocyte transformation test

Migration inhibiting factor test.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

theories of immune response
Theories of Immune Response
  • Several theories are considered

1 Direct template theory

2 Indirect template theory

3 Natural selection theory

4 Clonal selection theory

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

what is clonal selection theory
What is Clonal Selection Theory
  • Burnet proposed the theory 1957
  • The theory emphasizes the immunological specificity to cellular level

In this theory the cell are formed by somatic mutation, the cells that react with self antigens are eliminated and called as Forbidden clones.

Their persistence in later life leads to Autoimmune process

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

jerne s network hypothesis
Jerne’s network hypothesis
  • It explains the mechanism of antibody response
  • The variable region of an immunoglobulin molecule carrying the antigen combining site is different in different antibodies
  • The distinct Aminoacid sequence at antigen combing site and the adjacent parts of the variable regions are termed as idiotype
  • Produce antiidotypic antibodies
  • Which in turn produce antibodies to them

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

nobel prize winning theory
Nobel Prize winning theory
  • Which in turn produce antibodies to them
  • Forms a idiotype network
  • The above process controls the amount of antibodies
  • The above theory by Niels K.Jerne was awarded Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1984

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

recent theories
Recent Theories
  • Now genetic basis of antibody diversity is identified.
  • The recent theory of Split genes explains many unknown mechanisms
  • The theory says the information occurs in discontinuous stretches of DNA, each coding for separate regions of the antibody molecule

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

slide109

Programme created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical students in the Developing World

  • Email
  • doctortvrao@gmail.com

Dr.T.V.Rao MD