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The Growth of Democracy 1824–1840

The Growth of Democracy 1824–1840

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The Growth of Democracy 1824–1840

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  1. 11 The Growth of Democracy 1824–1840

  2. GRAFFITI WALL:Timeline of US progress and development • Identify key political, social, and economical concepts the US endured through the years of 1787-1824. • Hint (Whiskey Rebellion, Election of 1800, Louisiana Purchase, Jeffersonian Democracy, etc.) • Be ready to defend your concepts

  3. Key focus question for today’s lecture How did suffrage expand between 1800 and 1824?

  4. The New Democratic Politics in North America

  5. Struggles over Popular Rights: Mexico, the Caribbean, Canada • 1821 • Mexico independence • Haiti • Independence ended slavery / destroyed sugar industry • British Caribbean • Numerous revolts / abolition of slavery / decline of the sugar industry

  6. Struggles over Popular Rights: Mexico, the Caribbean, Canada • 1837 • Revolt by Upper and Lower Canada led to the union of the two regions to make the French-speaking population a minority.

  7. MAP 11.1 Population Trends: Westward Expansion, 1830

  8. The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage While the population of the United States more than doubled between 1800 and 1830, the trans-Appalachian population grew tenfold.

  9. The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage • 1800: White, male, property owners could vote in most states. • New western states in Union, suffrage expanded • 1820: Most of older states had dropped property qualifications • 1840: 90 percent of adult white males could vote

  10. The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage (cont'd) • Women and African Americans were barred from voting. • Unstable politics challenged democracy and threatened mob rule.

  11. FIGURE 11.1 Race Exclusions for Suffrage, 1790–1855

  12. Election of 1824

  13. The Election of 1824 • The 1824 election marked an end to the political truce of the Era of Good Feelings. Five candidates ran for the presidency. • Though Andrew Jackson had the most popular votes, John Quincy Adams won as a result of the so-called “corrupt bargain.” • Hostile relations with Congress blocked many of Adams’s initiatives.

  14. MAP 11.2 The Election of 1824

  15. The New Popular Democratic Culture • A more popular form of politics was emerging. • Mass rallies, parades and rowdy election days marked mass politics. • New state organizations increased political participation and helped elect Andrew Jackson president. • New techniques of mass campaigning encouraged increases in participation.

  16. Stump Speaking

  17. FIGURE 11.2 The Burgeoning of Newspapers Print Revolution

  18. North America and Philadelphia

  19. A Community of Voters Moves from Deference to Democracy • William Heighton • Helped form Philadelphia working men’s party • Animosity towards the monied aristocracy • Lack of broad appeal, the party did not last long and was quickly absorbed by the Jackson’s Democratic Party.

  20. Democracy takes form • What does it mean to be democratic? • How did the election evolve the meaning and pursuing of democracy? • Social Democracy (equal status) • Political Democracy (equal participation) • Economic Democracy (equality of opportunity and equality attainment)

  21. STOP • Assignment explanation • Be sure to read Chapter 11 using Same technique as in Chapter 12. • Pages to read: • The Jackson Presidency and Changing the Course of Government: 357-367(stop at Whigs, Van Buren, and the election of 1836)

  22. The Election of 1828 • In the 1828 election, Jackson triumphed as his supporters portrayed the contest as a struggle between democracy and aristocracy. • His victory showed the strength of the new popular democratic culture and system of national parties made up of a coalition of the North, South, and West.

  23. MAP 11.3 The Election of 1828

  24. Chapter Focus Questions • In what ways did Andrew Jackson’s presidency affirm new democratic policies? • How did the major political struggles of the Jackson years strengthen the executive branch of government?

  25. Chapter Focus Questions (cont’d) • How did the basic two-party pattern of American political democracy take shape? • How was a distinctive American cultural identity shaped by writers and artists?

  26. Campaign Propaganda • This anti-Jackson “coffin bill” from the election of 1828accuses Jackson of murder because he ordered threemen executed for desertion during the War of 1812.

  27. MAP 11.3 The Election of 1828

  28. FIGURE 11.3 Pre–Civil War Voter Turnout

  29. The Jackson Presidency( 1828-1836)

  30. President’s Levee, or all Creation Going to the White House

  31. A Popular President • Jackson symbolized the personal advancement that the frontier offered. • Although elites questioned his qualifications, his victory at New Orleans in 1815 made Jackson a popular hero • His inauguration brought out a mob of well-wishers who had unruly behavior. • His popular appeal marked a new, democratic style of politics.

  32. A Strong Executive • Jackson was a strong executive who consulted with the “Kitchen Cabinet,” largely ignoring his cabinet. • Clay, Webster and Calhoun were excluded from Jackson’s inner circle. • The Peggy Eaton affair underlined Jackson’s new approach to politics and brought women’s unofficial influence to an abrupt end.

  33. A Strong Executive (cont'd) • Jackson strengthened the presidency by using the veto more frequently than had all of his predecessors combined.

  34. The Nation’s Leader VersusSectional Spokesmen • Jackson’s Democrats created a national coalition that transcended sectional identity. • Regional spokespeople included: • Daniel Webster for the North; • John C. Calhoun for the South; and • Henry Clay for the West.

  35. Three Great Sectional Leaders.

  36. The Nation’s Leader VersusSectional Spokesmen (cont’d) • Spokesmen continuing popularity showed the power of sectional interests. • Jackson overrode sectional interests and had national appeal.

  37. The Nullification Crisis • Constitutional ambiguity, sectional interests, and the states’ rights issue caused political controversies. • The 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” elicited a strong reaction from South Carolina. Southerners argued that the tariff was an unconstitutional effort to enrich the North at southern expense.

  38. The Nullification Crisis (cont’d) • John C. Calhoun wrote a defense of the doctrine of nullification claiming states could refuse to enforce laws they deemed unconstitutional. • South Carolina nullified the 1833 tariff and threatened to secede. • Jackson considered South Carolina’s action treason and passed the Force Bill.

  39. The Nullification Crisis (cont’d) • Henry Clay engineered a compromise tariff that ended the threat of civil war.

  40. Changing the Course of Government

  41. MAP 11.4 Southern Indian Cessions and Removals, 1830s

  42. Indian Removal • Jackson embraced the policy of Indian cession of their lands and removal west of the Mississippi River. • The five civilized tribes of the South were most affected. • Even though the Cherokee had adopted white ways and accepted white culture, Jackson pressed for their removal.

  43. Indian Removal (cont'd) • Jackson defied the Supreme Court ruling in favor of the Cherokee. • The Cherokee removal was called the “Trail of Tears.” • The removal was strongly opposed by northerners. • Women’s benevolent societies surprised many in Congress with their activism and petitions.

  44. Internal Improvements • Jackson argued that federal funding for infrastructure was unconstitutional. • The veto of the Maysville Road Bill was a slap at Henry Clay as much as a policy statement. • Without federal funding the initiatives passed to private developers who then passed it to the states.

  45. Internal Improvements (cont'd) • States provided more funding for roads, canals and railroads than the federal government.

  46. Federal and State Support for Private Enterprise • The Supreme Court under Marshall fostered economic growth by: • federal power over interstate commerce; and • economic competition by denying monopolies. • State laws enabled businesses to protect themselves by granting charters of incorporation.

  47. Federal and State Support for Private Enterprise (cont'd) • Greater economic certainty helped bring about the Market Revolution.

  48. The Bank War • 1816: the Second Bank of the United States—quasi-private • The Second Bank acted as a currency stabilizer by: • growth of strong and stable financial interest; and • curbing less stable and irresponsible ones. • Eastern merchants found the bank a useful institution.

  49. The Bank War (cont'd) • Western farmers and speculators feared the Bank represented a moneyed elite. • Jackson vetoed the bill when Clay and Webster pushed for early re-chartering.

  50. Jackson’s Reelection in 1832 • With the Bank recharter as the main issue, in the election of 1832 Jackson soundly defeated Henry Clay. • After his victory, Jackson withdrew federal deposits and placed them in “pet” banks. • Jackson claimed that he was the direct representative of the people and could act regardless of Congressional opinion.