11 The Growth of Democracy 1824–1840
GRAFFITI WALL:Timeline of US progress and development • Identify key political, social, and economical concepts the US endured through the years of 1787-1824. • Hint (Whiskey Rebellion, Election of 1800, Louisiana Purchase, Jeffersonian Democracy, etc.) • Be ready to defend your concepts
Key focus question for today’s lecture How did suffrage expand between 1800 and 1824?
Struggles over Popular Rights: Mexico, the Caribbean, Canada • 1821 • Mexico independence • Haiti • Independence ended slavery / destroyed sugar industry • British Caribbean • Numerous revolts / abolition of slavery / decline of the sugar industry
Struggles over Popular Rights: Mexico, the Caribbean, Canada • 1837 • Revolt by Upper and Lower Canada led to the union of the two regions to make the French-speaking population a minority.
The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage While the population of the United States more than doubled between 1800 and 1830, the trans-Appalachian population grew tenfold.
The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage • 1800: White, male, property owners could vote in most states. • New western states in Union, suffrage expanded • 1820: Most of older states had dropped property qualifications • 1840: 90 percent of adult white males could vote
The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage (cont'd) • Women and African Americans were barred from voting. • Unstable politics challenged democracy and threatened mob rule.
The Election of 1824 • The 1824 election marked an end to the political truce of the Era of Good Feelings. Five candidates ran for the presidency. • Though Andrew Jackson had the most popular votes, John Quincy Adams won as a result of the so-called “corrupt bargain.” • Hostile relations with Congress blocked many of Adams’s initiatives.
The New Popular Democratic Culture • A more popular form of politics was emerging. • Mass rallies, parades and rowdy election days marked mass politics. • New state organizations increased political participation and helped elect Andrew Jackson president. • New techniques of mass campaigning encouraged increases in participation.
FIGURE 11.2 The Burgeoning of Newspapers Print Revolution
A Community of Voters Moves from Deference to Democracy • William Heighton • Helped form Philadelphia working men’s party • Animosity towards the monied aristocracy • Lack of broad appeal, the party did not last long and was quickly absorbed by the Jackson’s Democratic Party.
Democracy takes form • What does it mean to be democratic? • How did the election evolve the meaning and pursuing of democracy? • Social Democracy (equal status) • Political Democracy (equal participation) • Economic Democracy (equality of opportunity and equality attainment)
STOP • Assignment explanation • Be sure to read Chapter 11 using Same technique as in Chapter 12. • Pages to read: • The Jackson Presidency and Changing the Course of Government: 357-367(stop at Whigs, Van Buren, and the election of 1836)
The Election of 1828 • In the 1828 election, Jackson triumphed as his supporters portrayed the contest as a struggle between democracy and aristocracy. • His victory showed the strength of the new popular democratic culture and system of national parties made up of a coalition of the North, South, and West.
Chapter Focus Questions • In what ways did Andrew Jackson’s presidency affirm new democratic policies? • How did the major political struggles of the Jackson years strengthen the executive branch of government?
Chapter Focus Questions (cont’d) • How did the basic two-party pattern of American political democracy take shape? • How was a distinctive American cultural identity shaped by writers and artists?
Campaign Propaganda • This anti-Jackson “coffin bill” from the election of 1828accuses Jackson of murder because he ordered threemen executed for desertion during the War of 1812.
A Popular President • Jackson symbolized the personal advancement that the frontier offered. • Although elites questioned his qualifications, his victory at New Orleans in 1815 made Jackson a popular hero • His inauguration brought out a mob of well-wishers who had unruly behavior. • His popular appeal marked a new, democratic style of politics.
A Strong Executive • Jackson was a strong executive who consulted with the “Kitchen Cabinet,” largely ignoring his cabinet. • Clay, Webster and Calhoun were excluded from Jackson’s inner circle. • The Peggy Eaton affair underlined Jackson’s new approach to politics and brought women’s unofficial influence to an abrupt end.
A Strong Executive (cont'd) • Jackson strengthened the presidency by using the veto more frequently than had all of his predecessors combined.
The Nation’s Leader VersusSectional Spokesmen • Jackson’s Democrats created a national coalition that transcended sectional identity. • Regional spokespeople included: • Daniel Webster for the North; • John C. Calhoun for the South; and • Henry Clay for the West.
The Nation’s Leader VersusSectional Spokesmen (cont’d) • Spokesmen continuing popularity showed the power of sectional interests. • Jackson overrode sectional interests and had national appeal.
The Nullification Crisis • Constitutional ambiguity, sectional interests, and the states’ rights issue caused political controversies. • The 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” elicited a strong reaction from South Carolina. Southerners argued that the tariff was an unconstitutional effort to enrich the North at southern expense.
The Nullification Crisis (cont’d) • John C. Calhoun wrote a defense of the doctrine of nullification claiming states could refuse to enforce laws they deemed unconstitutional. • South Carolina nullified the 1833 tariff and threatened to secede. • Jackson considered South Carolina’s action treason and passed the Force Bill.
The Nullification Crisis (cont’d) • Henry Clay engineered a compromise tariff that ended the threat of civil war.
Indian Removal • Jackson embraced the policy of Indian cession of their lands and removal west of the Mississippi River. • The five civilized tribes of the South were most affected. • Even though the Cherokee had adopted white ways and accepted white culture, Jackson pressed for their removal.
Indian Removal (cont'd) • Jackson defied the Supreme Court ruling in favor of the Cherokee. • The Cherokee removal was called the “Trail of Tears.” • The removal was strongly opposed by northerners. • Women’s benevolent societies surprised many in Congress with their activism and petitions.
Internal Improvements • Jackson argued that federal funding for infrastructure was unconstitutional. • The veto of the Maysville Road Bill was a slap at Henry Clay as much as a policy statement. • Without federal funding the initiatives passed to private developers who then passed it to the states.
Internal Improvements (cont'd) • States provided more funding for roads, canals and railroads than the federal government.
Federal and State Support for Private Enterprise • The Supreme Court under Marshall fostered economic growth by: • federal power over interstate commerce; and • economic competition by denying monopolies. • State laws enabled businesses to protect themselves by granting charters of incorporation.
Federal and State Support for Private Enterprise (cont'd) • Greater economic certainty helped bring about the Market Revolution.
The Bank War • 1816: the Second Bank of the United States—quasi-private • The Second Bank acted as a currency stabilizer by: • growth of strong and stable financial interest; and • curbing less stable and irresponsible ones. • Eastern merchants found the bank a useful institution.
The Bank War (cont'd) • Western farmers and speculators feared the Bank represented a moneyed elite. • Jackson vetoed the bill when Clay and Webster pushed for early re-chartering.
Jackson’s Reelection in 1832 • With the Bank recharter as the main issue, in the election of 1832 Jackson soundly defeated Henry Clay. • After his victory, Jackson withdrew federal deposits and placed them in “pet” banks. • Jackson claimed that he was the direct representative of the people and could act regardless of Congressional opinion.