The Health Belief Model: An Overview. Leticia L Vance, MSN, Fnp-bc Indiana Wesleyan University doctorate of nursing practice. The Health Belief Model: A Broad Summary.
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The Health Belief Model: An Overview Leticia L Vance, MSN, Fnp-bc Indiana Wesleyan University doctorate of nursing practice
The Health Belief Model: A Broad Summary • The Health Belief Model is a model which attempts to explain and predict health behaviors and patterns based in psychological theory.
The Health Belief Model:History and Development • Believed to be one of the first behavioral health theories • Developed in the 1950s by a group of social psychologists from the U.S. Public Health Service • Goal was to determine why so few people were participating in disease prevention and detection programs
The Health Belief Model:History and Development • First used after the failure of a free tuberculosis (TB) health screening to understand why it failed • Looks at the relationship between a person’s beliefs and their health behaviors
The Health Belief Model:Core Belief and Assumptions • Health-seeking behavior is influenced by a person’s perception of the potential health problem threat • Perception does not equate reality
The Health Belief Model:Methods and Validity • Primary method: Surveys • Likert • Multiple Choice Questionnaire Items • Validity • Based on the quality and reliability of the construct of the surveys
The Health Belief Model:Major Concepts Defined • Perceived Susceptibility-person’s perception that a health problem is personally relevant or that a diagnosis of illness is accurate • Application: define population(s) at risk, risk levels; personalized risk based on a person’s features or behavior; heighten perceived susceptibility if too low
The Health Belief Model:Major Concepts Defined • Perceived Severity-individual’s opinion of how serious a condition and its consequences are in relation to self • Application: specify consequences of the risk and the condition
The Health Belief Model:Major Concepts Defined • Perceived Benefits-individual’s belief in the efficacy of the advised action to reduce risk or seriousness of the impact • Application: define action to take: the how, where, when and what; clarify the positive effects to be expected
The Health Belief Model:Major Concepts Defined • Perceived Barriers-individual’s opinion of the tangible and psychological cost of the advised action • Application: identify and reduce barriers through reassurance, incentives and assistant; know community resources
The Health Belief Model:Major Concepts Defined • Cues to Action/Motivation-individual’s desire to comply with a treatment; readiness • Application: provide how-to information, encouragement and reminders; promote awareness
The Health Belief Model:Major Concepts Defined • Self-Efficacy/Modifying Factors- individual’s confidence in own ability to take action; ability to work within own person variables and adjust when necessary • Application: provide training, guidance and alternatives when hurdles are met
The Health Belief Model:Strengths • Ease of use and transferability • Non-psychologist friendly • Allows for focused research on modifiable behaviors • Makes testable predictions: Large threats might be offset by perceived costs; small threats by large benefits etc.
The Health Belief Model:Limitations • Does not account for a person’s attitudes, beliefs, or other individual determinants that dictate a person’s acceptance of a health behavior • Assumes everyone has access to equal amounts of information on the illness and disease
The Health Belief Model:Limitations • Assumes that “health” actions are the main goal in the decision making process • Assumes health behavior is rational and logical