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Health Belief Model. Malos Jaeger 17 October 2013. Health Belief Model. A value-expectancy model Benefits – cost incurred = behavior change Used in public health practice for greater than 50 years Uses fear instinct response to change health-risk behaviors. Health Belief Model.

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health belief model

Health Belief Model



17 October 2013

health belief model1
Health Belief Model
  • A value-expectancy model
    • Benefits – cost incurred = behavior change
  • Used in public health practice for greater than 50 years
  • Uses fear instinct response to change health-risk behaviors
health belief model2
Health Belief Model
  • Two constructs influence health behavior:
  • Perceived threat
    • Perceived susceptibility
    • Perceived severity
  • Expected net gain of adopting health behavior
health belief model3
Health Belief Model
  • Modifying factors
    • Age
    • Race
    • Socioeconomic status
    • Health knowledge
  • These factors can moderate perceived threat
health belief model4
Health Belief Model
  • Self-efficacy/self confidence added to model in 1988.
  • Cues to action

A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Health Belief Model Variables in Predicting Behavior

Christopher J. Carpenter, Department of Communication, Western Illinois University

Version of record first published: 09 Dec 2010

article premise

HBM (Rosenstock, 1966)

  • Conduct of a meta-analysis to determine if perceptions/variables/elements contained within the HBM can longitudinally predict behavior
  • Carpenter endeavors to resolve which HBM elements are most strongly related to health behavior
  • Previous studies offer conflicting findings

Article Premise

aspects of the hbm
Aspects of the HBM
  • Susceptibility and severity – individual perception of negative health outcome
  • Beliefs and barriers – individual perception of target behavior that reduces likelihood of negative health outcome
  • Cues to action
  • Self efficacy
longitudinal studies
Longitudinal studies
  • Capture change in individual perceptions of HBM elements after behavior
  • Carpenter holds that unless the HBM variables are measured some time before the individuals in a study make their choice to adopt the behavior or not, the results could misrepresent the ability of the HBM to predict behavior.
current meta analysis methodology
Current Meta-analysis/Methodology
  • Author evaluates accuracy of direct effects HBM through analysis of longitudinal studies
  • Effects of elements/variables
  • Possible studies for analysis culled to 18 taking place from 1982 to 2007 with 2702 participants
  • Moderators
    • Time between variable measurement and outcome behavior measurement
    • Type of outcome behavior (prevention v. treatment)
    • Drug/non drug outcome
  • Severity – low correlation between subject’s estimate of severity and likelihood of behavior adoption
    • Moderator effects:
      • behavior of complying with drug prescription leads to greater consideration of severity
      • length of time between measurement of severity perception and behavior; less time indicates greater likelihood of behavior adoption
  • Susceptibility – correlation between perception of susceptibility and behavior adoption near zero
    • Moderator effects
      • Compliance with drug prescription notes narrow positive effect
      • relationship between perceived susceptibility and behavior adoption further weakens over time
  • Benefits – perception of benefits has positive correlation with likelihood of behavior adoption
    • Moderator effects. Weaker effect over time.
  • Barriers – subject perception of barriers on behavior adoption largest correlation of four HBM elements
    • Moderator effects
      • Barriers weaker predictor of behavior adoption when behavior outcome was treatment v. prevention
      • Effect of time on relationship between barriers and behavior adoption inconsistent
  • Severity, Barriers, and Benefits all related as predicted with regard to behavior adoption
  • Susceptibility almost always unrelated to behavior
  • Moderators
    • Time increase between perception measurement and behavior adoption measurement indicates a weakening relationship
    • Drug treatment studies note only instance of correlation between susceptibility and behavior adoption
  • Author’s conclusions tentative given small number of studies
  • Commonly used four variable HBM suffers from inconsistency and the weakness of susceptibility as a predictor
  • Future HBM models should examine mediation and moderation in the context of applicable variables