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  2. POLYTHEISM • Polytheism

  3. POLYTHEISM • Belief in, or worship of, multiple deities or gods. • Gods are conceived as complex personages of greater or lesser status, with individual skills, needs, desires and stories. • The gods are not always omnipotent or omniscient; rather, they are often portrayed as similar to humans in their personality traits, but with additional individual powers, abilities, knowledge or perceptions. • Sumerian gods, the Egyptian gods, the Ancient Greek religion, Norse Æsir and Vanir, the Yoruba Orisha, the Aztec gods, and many others.

  4. HINDUISM The sound OHM, or AUM, is the most sacred symbol for Hindus. It is often used in prayer

  5. HINDUISM: For the Exam Know: -The Caste System (no social mobility), determined at birth, good behavior moves up caste after death. -Oldest organized religion in history -Polytheistic -Belief in Reincarnation

  6. HINDUISM • Collection of beliefs that developed over thousands of years (combo of Arayan beliefs w/ native beliefs). No founder. India. • Brahman is most divine spirit • Holy Men, GURUS, are spiritual teachers. They interpret the religion. • Sacred Books: Vedas/Upanishads • Liberation from desires and suffering: Moksha. • Reincarnation based on Karma and Darma • Caste System (ex: Brahmin)

  7. BUDDHISM WHEEL OF LAW – his teachings are often a symbol of the wheel and interconnectedness of life and all living things.

  8. BUDDHISM Know: -Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) -Created to overcome Suffering -4 Noble Truths: Life is Suffering, Suffering comes from desire End desire and suffering ends, End desire by following the 8-fold path -Does not agree with the Caste System (all life is equal)

  9. BUDDHISM • Siddartha Guatama – 563 BCE • Wandered to find “Enlightenment”. • 4 Noble Truths about suffering and how to get rid of it. • 8-Fold Path = steps to Nirvana (release from selfishness and pain. • Draws from Hinduism – but also a reaction to harsh Hindu traditions (Caste). • Spread throughout all of Asia

  10. CONFUCIANISM Confucius

  11. CONFUCIANISM Know: -The Five relationships Ruler-Ruled, Father-Son, Husband-Wife, Older Brother-Younger Brother, Friend-Friend -Created to restore social order -Focus on Filial Piety -Holy Text = The Analects -Founded by Confucius (Kung FuTzi)

  12. CONFUCIANISM • Confucius lived during Zhou Dynasty (500’s BCE) • His influence wasn’t appreciated until Han Dynasty (200’s BCE) • 5 Basic Relationships • Ruler/Subject 2. Father/Son 3.Husband/Wife 4. Older brother/younger brother 5. friends FILIAL PIETY – respect for parents and elders. • Social Order/Harmony • Education is critically important

  13. DAOISM Know: -Founded by Lao Tzu -Created to restore balance/harmony -Based on Nature (water imagery) -Believed nature is pure, society corrupts


  15. DAOISM Know: -Founded by Lao Tzu -Created to restore balance/harmony -Based on Nature (water imagery) -Believed nature is pure, society corrupts

  16. DAOISM • Laozi (600 BCE). • Natural Order is KEY! • Of all creatures of nature, only humans fail to follow the Dao or “the way”. • Government should do as little as possible and leave the people alone. • Communion with nature instead of political chaos.

  17. Legalism Know: -Founded by Han Feizi -Created to restore order/peace -Based on rewards/punishments -Believed nature corrupts; society (and laws) can make us better Largely supported only during the Qin Dynasty

  18. Monotheism • Belief in One God (Mono = 1 Theism = God)

  19. JUDAISM Star of David (shield of David)…is the universal symbol of Judaism. It refers to King David, who ruled the kingdom of Israel.

  20. JUDAISM Know: -Oldest Monotheistic religion known -Holy Book = Torah -First of the Abrahamic Faiths -Migratory population based on racism -Founded by Abraham/Moses

  21. JUDAISM • First heavily followed monotheistic religion. • Book: Torah • God chose Abraham to be the “father” of the Hebrew people. • To Hebrews, God (Yahweh) was not a physical being and no images were made of Yahweh. • Migrated to Egypt from Canaan (today’s Israel) and were forced into slavery. • Exodus: 1300-1200 BCE…Moses led them from slavery. • 900 BCE – 2 kingdoms: Judah and Israel. Judah was destroyed by Assyrians. • Fighting for Jerusalem still exists today.

  22. CHRISTIANITY CROSS = symbol of crucifixion of Jesus Christ…represents Jesus’ love for humanity in dying for its sins.

  23. CHRISTIANITY • Worship of Roman gods was impersonal, practiced without a great deal of emotion. Christianity was accepted and spread. • Emphasized individual relationships with God. • Jesus (prophet) was born a Jew in Judea (4 BCE?). Christians believe he is the son of God. • Bible = combo of Jewish and new Christian ideas • Constantine was first Roman emperor to accept it as the Romans expanded East. It became official religion of Rome, eventually.

  24. ISLAM Crescent Moon – became symbol during Ottoman Empire. Maybe 5 stars represent Pillars? Some Muslims actually do not accept it. It is often used on political flags to represent Islamic nations.

  25. ISLAM Know: -5 Pillars of Islam: Statement of Faith, Pray 5 times a day, Give to the needy, Fast during Ramadan, Perform the Hajj [trip to Mecca] once in your life -Founded by Muhammad in the 7th century (600s) -Sunni-Shi’a split after the death of Muhammad: Why? Does it still exist? -Caliph = Islamic Political Leader

  26. ISLAM • Mecca, Saudi Arabia – holy city • Muhammad – Final Prophet (accepts Abraham and Jesus as well. ) • 5 Pillars of Faith • Monotheistic • Islamic Empire – becomes its own empire! • Trade and Commerce spread its ideas and became a huge empire.