History 3000 Revolutionary Europe: 1789 -1848 Elizabeth Hyde
Factors in growing crisis of the 18th century: • Growth of public sphere • Print • Places • Organizations • Weakened image of monarchy • Unpopularity of Louis XVI and (especially) Marie Antoinette • Desacralization of monarchy • From Royal grandeur to Rococo luxury • Government economic crisis • Taxes insufficient; tax code exempted first and second estate • Rise of prices • Intermittent bad harvests • Bread prices rising, jobs lost
Abbe de Sieyes, “What is the Third Estate?” • What is the Third Estate? Everything. • What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing. • What does it want? To become something.
Four classes of work: • Work in the countryside with raw materials. • Industry • Merchants • “service” industry Who does all this work? The Third Estate.
Phases of Revolution • 1789 Revolution breaks out • 1789-1971 Moderate Phase • Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen • Work towards constitutional monarchy • 1792-1794 Radical Phase • Rise of Jacobins, Sans-culottes, Robespierre • Reign of Terror • 1795-1799 Reaction
The Jacobins • Most important political club • Two radical groups within the Jacobins • Girondists: supported harsh treatment of nobles, clergy, supported the war, but balked at popular violence (e.g. Marquis de Condorcet) • Mountain: manipulated the crowd against Girondists, believed war could consolidate support (e.g. Marat, Danton, Maximilien Robespierre) • Support of Sans-culottes (working classes) crucial to Jacobin success.
Sans-culottes(from 1793 pamphlet) A sans-culotte you rogues? He is someone who always goes on foot, who has no millions as you would all like to have, no chateaux, no valets to serve him, and who lives simply with his wife and children… He is useful, because he knows how to work in the field, to forge iron, to use a saw, to use a file, to roof a house, to make shoes, and to shed his last drop of blood for the safety of the Republic…. In the evening he goes to his section, not powdered or perfumed, or smartly booted in the hope of catching the eye of the citizenesses in the galleries, but ready to support good proposals…. Finally, a sans-culotte always has his sabre sharp, to cut off the ears of all enemies of the Revolution. . .
Napoleonic Government • From “First Consul” to “Consul for Life” to Emperor. • Napleonic (or Civil) Code ensured the survival of many revolutionary reforms. • Imposed the code on conquered territories. • Brought new (but short-lived) freedoms to some. • Ensconced patriarchal and paternalistic language in French government. • Placed family members on thrones of conquered countries.
Revolutionary Europe, 1815-1848 Waves of Revolution • 1820 • 1830 • 1848
Consequences of 1848? • Some liberal gains • But divisions between liberals and workers proved costly • Radicalization of working classes • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto