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(photo courtesy Kris Kinney). High Performance Design and Construction Energy Efficiency: What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? Karl Brown Deputy Director California Institute for Energy Efficiency University of California Office of the President.

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High Performance Design and Construction Energy Efficiency: What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? Karl Brown


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. (photo courtesy Kris Kinney) High Performance Design and Construction Energy Efficiency: What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? Karl Brown Deputy Director California Institute for Energy Efficiency University of California Office of the President

    2. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy EfficiencyWhat is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? 80% of the energy load of typical 1999 buildings? 65%? 50%? 35%? 20%?

    3. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy EfficiencyWhat is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? <50% of the energy load of typical 1999 buildings

    4. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy EfficiencyWhat is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? “Factors of Two” in New Construction • Good Lighting Design > 1.5 vs. < 1 Watt per sq. ft. (Labs) • Elimination of Reheat • Good Air System Design • Low Pressure Drop > 8” is typical, < 4” is good design (Labs) • Tight Ducts 30% leakage doubles fan power

    5. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? “Factors of Two” in New Construction (Laboratories) • Indirect Evaporative Temper (100%) outside air Pre-Cooling (drop delta T from 30 to 15 degrees F) • Low-Flow Fume Hoods

    6. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency “Berkeley Hood” Low Flow Fume Hood (LBNL) • Energy Use Standard Fume Hood = House • “Berkeley Hood” • Developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory • 50% or less air flow • Equivalent or improved containment and capture • Test installations • Montana State University • UC San Francisco • San Diego State (pending)

    7. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? Additional Important Design Features for UC Merced • Control of Solar Load Advanced windows and sun shading • Individual HVAC Control Some faculty offices • Operable Windows Most faculty offices, some small classrooms • Commissioning “…by any other name…” • Energy Performance Monitoring Measure success Optimize operations Feedback to design Academic program

    8. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency Energy Monitoring Applications: Building Subsystems Chiller Performance (illustration courtesy Lee Eng Lock)

    9. Monitoring Reveals More “Factors of Two” in EfficiencyDistrict Steam (◊) vs. Other Thermal Systems ()Coastal and Central California Climate UC/CSU Campus Gas Use vs. Complex Building Fraction (heating degree days is 2nd variable)

    10. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency UC Merced Infrastructure Measures • No district steam heating • Chilled water thermal storage • Cluster lab buildings around plant • Large pipes and small pumps • (not vice versa) • Rational plant sizing

    11. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? “Factor of Two” in Plant Design—Typical Scenario 1) Design engineers estimate cooling load at 1,200 tons 2) Campus engineers argue design engineers back to 600 tons 3) Fully occupied and utilized facility never uses more than 300 tons

    12. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency Recap of UC Merced Design Measures and Technology • Advanced Lighting Systems* • Advanced Windows* • Sun Shading • Duct Sealing* • Efficient HVAC Design • Efficient Laboratory Air System Design* • Comfort and Indoor Air Quality Standards* • Advanced Energy Metering and Control Systems* • Systems Commissioning • Integrated Planning of Building Loads and Infrastructure Capacity * Technologies developed with the help of UC through Berkeley Lab and other campuses.

    13. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? Clues in the Literature: • Canadian C-2000 Program (60%) • Todesco, G. 1996. “Super-Efficient Buildings: How Low Can You Go?” ASHRAE Journal. 38:12:35-40. Atlanta GA. American Society of Heating Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. • State of Utah (50-78%) • Case and Windergerden. 1998. “Incentive Program for Energy Efficient Design of State Buildings”. In Proceedings of the 1996 ACEEE Summer Study of Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Washington D.C. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy • PG&E ACTT Antioch Project (36%) • Hernandez, G.; E. Kolderup; G. Syphers. 1997. ACT2 CSAA Commercial Site Impact Evaluation Report. San Francisco CA. Eley Associates and Pacific Gas & Electric Co. http://www.pge.com/customer_services/other/pec/act2/act2over.html • LBNL Applications Team: California Lab-type Facilities (50%) • Mills et al. 1996. “Energy Efficiency in California Laboratory-type Facilities”. LBNL-39061. Berkeley CA. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    14. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy EfficiencyWhat is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? UC Merced Efficient Design Scenario Energy Load as % of 1999 UC Average Benchmark* Buildings Opening in 2004 2005-2007 2008--> 80% 65% 50% *concurrent with all cooling load shifted off-peak

    15. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency UC Merced Load Projection (Maximum Demand) 2004 2007 (2004 plant) Space (gsf) 0.7 million 1.2 million 8.6 million Scenario • Base (business-as-usual)3.6 MW 6.3 MW 46 MW • Load Management 2.7 MW 4.8 MW 34 MW • Efficient Design 2.1 MW 3.5 MW 18 MW

    16. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency Strategic Energy Planning (Enron/UC/CSU Contract)Santa BarbaraScenarios

    17. Set firm goals Establish efficiency as a priority early in programming and budgeting Select A&E consultants with efficiency as a part of their core practice Provide resources to engineers and lighting designers early in design Integrate with infrastructure planning (campus setting) Value engineering of “margins of safety” Demand good documentation (commissioning) High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency Interventions

    18. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency Resources • Benchmarking • LEED™ • “Savings By Design” • statewide public goods fund program • 2001 Advanced Lighting Design Guidelines • Design Guide for Energy Efficient Research Laboratories • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Applications Team • Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) Partnership • with U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE

    19. UC Merced Chancellor Carol Tomlinson-Keasey Cliff Graves Bob Badgley Chris Adams Juan Beltranena Cynthia Hughes Pam Moody UC Programs Scott Samuelsen, UCI Jack Brouwer, UCI Harrison Fraker, UCB John Klopf, UCB Jeff Dozier, UCSB Dennis Aigner, UCSB Mo Lovegreen, UCSB Dale Sartor, LBNL UCOP Clifton Bowen Maric Munn Gary Matteson Johnny Torrez Jim Smith Joanne Cate Trudis Heinecke UC/CSU Facilities Tony Valenzuela, CSU Paul Black, UCB Adney Bowker, UCD Grant Fulgham, UCSB Paul Howland, UCI George Palmer, UCR Keith Roberts, UCD Dick Smith, CSU Fresno Victor Takahashi, CSU Stanislaus Gerry White, UCSD High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency UC Acknowledgements

    20. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency For More Information Karl Brown karl.brown@ucop.edu 510/643-1617

    21. High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency • “If decisions were a choice between alternatives, decisions would come easy. Decision is the selection and formulation of alternatives.” • Kenneth Burke, American literary critic and poet