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Energy Efficiency in Housing and Small Buildings
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  1. Energy Efficiency in Housing and Small Buildings Progress Report February 15th 2011

  2. Outline • The Project • Policy Advice • Current Construction Practice – Baseline • Proposed Requirements • Scope and Application of Requirements • Small Buildings • Building Envelope • HVAC • Service Water Heating • Performance Path • Working Target Validation

  3. Code Committees • CCBFC • Standing Committee on Housing and Small Buildings • Standing Committee on Energy Efficiency in Buildings • Joint Task Group in Housing and Small Buildings • Performance Compliance • Small Buildings • Building Envelope (Housing) • HVAC & Service Water Heating (Housing) • Code Coordination

  4. Partnership between CCBFC and NRCan • NRCan and CCBFC collaborate at all levels • NRCan staff is presented on all sTG and JTG and CCBFC • CCC staff is represented on ERS, R2000 and EnergyStar committees • CCC and NRCan Staff have regular meetings on Energy Efficiency projects • Relationship between Code and ERS • The ERS (and HOT2000) are important tools for code compliance • sTGs develop language to permit HOT2000 for code compliance • Reference specific tools or ratings might be administrative requirements

  5. Project Schedule • October-December 2010 Develop Requirements • January (3rd week) 2011 JTG Meeting (final prescriptive req’s) • January-March 2011 sTGs finalize PCFs andvalidate prescriptive requirements • April 2011 Meeting of the JTG-EEHSB • May 2011 Meeting of SCs (HSB & EEB) • June 2011 Approved PCFs go to pre-public review (EC) • Sep and Oct 2011 Public Review • Nov and Dec 2011 sTGs review all comments on PCFs • January 2012 JTG-EEHSB reviews comments and possible revisions from sTG. • February 2012 SC review of final PCFs • April 2012 CCBFC approves Changes • Summer 2012 Editing & Translation. • Fall 2012Publication

  6. Outline • The Project • Policy Advice • Current Construction Practice – Baseline • Proposed Requirements • Scope and Application of Requirements • Small Buildings • Building Envelope • HVAC • Service Water Heating • Performance Path • Working Target Validation

  7. CCBFC/PTPACC Scope • Joint CCBFC/PTPACC Task Group • Locate requirements in Part 9 (not in MNECH) • Provide prescriptive and performance path • Address at a minimum: Building Envelope and HVAC • Avoid barriers to use of alternative energy sources (“renewables”) • Ensure energy efficiency for housing is forward looking • Provide prescriptive options for small buildings • Develop flexible framework for provinces • Use Current Construction as baseline (study) • Publish interim changes by 2012

  8. CCBFC Policy Advice • CCBFC • Draft Policy Advice discussed – June 2010 • Policy Advice approved by ballot – August 2010 • energy performance levels (working target of ERS 80) • objective-based analysis (objective-based provisions) • compliance path (prescriptive/performance) • energy sources (address energy used by the bldg) (no diff. req’s based on fuel source) • assembly constructions (no exceptions for assemblies) • costs and benefits (cost of constr. & energy saved) • fenestration to wall ratio (set max F/W ratio) • heat recovery (consider heat recovery ventilation) • occupancies (residential & non-residential)

  9. Assembly Construction • CCBFC policy • All assemblies / types of construction are treated equal • MNECH • Had exemption for log homes and manufactured housing • Required to use simple trade-off path • Log homes • Use simple trade off or performance path • Energy Performance of log homes needs to be verified • Factory-constructed buildings?

  10. Renewable Energy • CCBFC policy • “use NECB approach” • NECB approach &JTG Recommendation for EEHSB • Provide acceptable solutions where applicable • No barriers – no explicit permission or exemption • Renewable energy can be modeled in performance path (AHJ) • Address in flexible framework • Long Term Plan for EEHSB • Develop quantitative energy target • Possibly address primary energy • Provide credits for renewable on-site energy

  11. Outline • The Project • Policy Advice • Current Construction Practice – Baseline • Proposed Requirements • Scope and Application of Requirements • Small Buildings • Building Envelope • HVAC • Service Water Heating • Performance Path • Working Target Validation

  12. Current Construction Practice • Baseline = Current Construction • Development of Baseline • Study by Marshall Leslie • Also considered CHBA Pulse Survey and Industry Sales figures • Results from Survey • based on 2009 calendar year • ~300 responses • 48% of builders are EE program enrolled • Data was organized by city not by climate zone

  13. Current Construction Practice • Analyzed Data • now also sortable by climate zones • weighted for population and housing starts • normalized for more realistic split of EE/non-EE program builder • Data will be used as Baseline for • incremental construction cost • energy savings benefit • Single baseline across Canada • unless special situation requires multiple baselines • choose average or mode or realistic value

  14. Current Construction Practice • Distribution of Responses by Location • Unweighted • Weighted

  15. Current Construction Practice • Distribution Of Label/Non-Label Builders By Location • Unweighted • Weighted

  16. Current Construction Practice • Above-Grade Wall Insulation • all builders • weighted by population • by climate zone

  17. Current Construction Practice • Exterior Wall Insulation R20 Nominal • Wall framing 2x6 framing, 16” on center • Attic Insulation R40 Nominal • Basement Walls Inside at full height with R12 • Floor Slabs Not insulated • Window glazing option Low-e, Argon, double glazed • Window Frame Vinyl • Gas furnace efficiency 90% efficiency furnaces • HRVs installed in 60% of new homes

  18. Outline • The Project • Policy Advice • Current Construction Practice – Baseline • Proposed Requirements • Scope and Application of Requirements • Small Buildings • Building Envelope • HVAC • Service Water Heating • Performance Path • Working Target Validation

  19. Compliance Paths • Types of Compliance Paths • Prescriptive • separate energy efficiency requirements for each building part and for each part of the equipment • Individual components must achieve compliance with their specific targets • Performance • Based on a building’s overall consumption of energy • Simple Trade Off • Values are set for each part of the building • Higher values on one part can be traded-off against lower values on specified other parts

  20. Proposed Requirements • 9.36.1 Scope and Application • 9.36.2 Small Buildings • 9.36.3 Building Envelope • 9.36.4 HVAC • 9.36.5 Service Water Heating • 9.36.6 Performance Path

  21. Scope and Application • Application of Requirements • Division between using Housing and Small Buildings • Small buildings = • Non-residential bldgs and • Residential bldgs with common spaces • Housing = • Houses, • Houses with secondary suites and • Residential occupancies (w/o common spaces) • Scope of Requirements • Housing = BE, HVAC, SWH • Small buildings = BE, HVAC, SWH + Lighting, Electrical

  22. Small Buildings • Compliance Route • Follow NECB • Permissions to use Housing Requirements • For residential buildings with common spaces • building envelope, HVAC and SWH • where each self-contained HVAC system serves only a single dwelling unit, • For dwelling units in buildings of other than residential occupancy • HVAC • where a self-contained HVAC systems serves only that dwelling unit,

  23. Building Envelope (Housing) • Prescriptive Requirements • Based on climate zones (as NECB) • Opaque Assemblies • min. R effective by assembly type • 2 airtightness levels • Nominal R-values for wood, concrete, steel in Appendix • Fenestration • maximum U-values (windows, doors, skylights) • and minimum ER values (windows and doors) • Minimum Airtightness • Prescriptive (10 details for int., ext. approach) • Testing (assembly, whole house) Rnominal Reffective

  24. Building Envelope (Housing) • Minimum Effective Thermal Resistance • Above-grade opaque assemblies

  25. Building Envelope (Housing) • Minimum Effective Thermal Resistance • Below-grade opaque assemblies

  26. Building Envelope (Housing) • Fenestration • Fenestration means: • “all building envelope assemblies and their frames that allow the transfer visible light or movement of persons, including but not limited to, windows, clerestories, skylights, translucent wall panels, glass blocks, transoms, side-lights and sliding-, overhead- or swinging doors.” • maximum U-values (windows, doors, skylights) • minimum ER values (windows and doors) • possibly two levels (based on fenestration-to-wall ratio) • Exemptions • Storm doors exempt • 1 front door and attic/crawl space hatches U = 2.6 W/m²K • Garage door U = 1.1 W/m²K

  27. Building Envelope (Housing) • Maximum Thermal Transmittance • Windows, doors, Skylights

  28. Building Envelope (Housing) • Fenestration-to-Wall ratio • Set to 22% (?) • Measure interior wall surface of dwelling unit • Addresses row houses and apartment buildings • Current Practice: • Average: 18% • 90th percentile: 24% • Most housing falls within these ratios • Large single storey houses and walk-outs could be higher • Row houses/apartment buildings have limited exterior wall space available (need ~10-12m² per unit) • Row houses and MURB’s need a 40% cap on exterior building envelope (50% permitted with higher U-values)

  29. Building Envelope (Housing) • Airtightness • Option 1 - 2.5 ACH • Prescriptive (10 construction details, int/ext approach) • Testing • ULC S742 Air Barrier Assemblies • Blower Door test as option • = less stringent insulation requirements • = enabling effective use of HRV • Option 2 – 4 ACH • Follow 9.25 requirements • = more stringent insulation requirements

  30. HVAC • HVAC • many MNECH requirements moved • no HRVs required • Insulated ducts, dampers, thermostats • minimum equipment efficiencies • standards for renewable energy technology will be referenced (heat pumps, solar hot water) • require heat recovery for ventilation of interior pools • not requiring HRV for dwelling units • Issues • HRV freeze in cold temperatures • high cost • Not effective at current practice airtightness

  31. Service Water Heating • Service Water Heating • set equipment efficiencies • no water conservation • include pool heaters • standards for renewable energy technology can be referenced if available • for example solar water heater

  32. Performance Path • Prescriptive • Building envelope • min R-values, max U-values, max. F/W ratio, 2 airtightness levels • HVAC & SWH • min efficiencies for furnaces & water heaters, no HRVs, insulated ducts, • should achieve equivalent to ERS 80 • being developed based on the assemblies/systems found in typical ERS 80 houses • needs validation • No trade-off across BE and HVAC

  33. Performance Path • Prescriptive • Building envelope • min R-values, max U-values, max. F/W ratio, 2 airtightness levels • HVAC & SWH • min efficiencies for furnaces & water heaters, no HRVs, insulated ducts, • should achieve equivalent to ERS 80 • being developed based on the assemblies/systems found in typical ERS 80 houses • needs validation • No trade-off across BE and HVAC

  34. Performance Path • Prescriptive • Building envelope • min R-values, max U-values, max. F/W ratio, 2 airtightness levels • HVAC & SWH • min efficiencies for furnaces & water heaters, no HRVs, insulated ducts, • should achieve equivalent to ERS 80 • being developed based on the assemblies/systems found in typical ERS 80 houses • needs validation • No trade-off across BE and HVAC

  35. Performance Path • Performance Path • calculate reference house built to prescriptive path (+ assumptions) =X

  36. Performance Path • Performance Path • calculate reference house built to prescriptive path (+ assumptions) • proposed houses will be modeled against reference result =X

  37. Performance Path • Performance Path • calculate reference house built to prescriptive path (+ assumptions) • proposed houses will be modeled against reference result • If proposed house uses equal or less energy = OK =X ≤X

  38. Performance Path • Performance Path • calculate reference house built to prescriptive path (+ assumptions) • proposed houses will be modeled against reference result • If proposed house uses equal or less energy = OK • Long-term – “energy frame” • develop quantitative energy targets for space heating, SWH, building envelope. =X ≤X

  39. Performance Path • Performance Path • HOT2000 thoroughly considered and probably default method, but need to allow for other calculation methods • How to make sure that performance path can be enforced • Administrative provisions • Input assumptions for calculation tools • State what needs to be reported • Possibly check list for enforcement =X ≤X

  40. Relationship between Code and Energuide Rating System (ERS) • The ERS and its software (HOT2000) is one tool that • allows demonstrating compliance with the performance path • addresses building envelope, HVAC and SWH • also addresses other issues (fuel source incl. renewables, plug loads) • NRCan and various codes’ committees collaborate to make sure HOT2000 can be used for code compliance • The code cannot reference a specific software/calculation tool • Referencing a rating of ERS 80 would be an administrative requirement, which P/T’s have asked to avoid

  41. Working Target ERS 80 • Validation • use NRCan EnergyStar BOP protocol • model 11 house archetypes • for each climate zone, • average results per climate zone • average all zones across Canada • average across Canadashould be equivalent to ERS 80 • as usual, committees consider • cost • constructability • provincial requirements

  42. Working Target ERS 80 • Validation Assumptions • Ventilation • code minimum ventilation rates, • 8 hours daily (whole year) • no HRV • Fuel • by modeling location • representative of Canadian fuel mix • Operating conditions • 2 adults, 2 children, 50% at the time • 21°C in the main space, 19°C in the basement • 225 l/day hot water use at 55°C • 24 kW plug loads

  43. Working Target ERS 80 • 11 House Archetypes • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5/6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10/11

  44. Working Target ERS 80 • 11 House Archetypes

  45. Working Target ERS 80 • 11 House Archetypes – Calculation of Average For illustration purposes only

  46. Working Target ERS 80 • Building features not addressed in the code,which impact energy used by the building • building size, shape and height • Orientation o windows, doors and skyights • fuel used • amount of windows, doors and skylights (fenestration) • ventilation duration, hot water usage • Modeling assumptions will reflect • minimum code requirements or • (code-compliant) range of values in typical construction

  47. Working Target ERS 80 • Modelling assumptions will be set to result inperformance averaging ERS 80

  48. Discussion • Short Term (until June 30th 2011) • Assistance with • reviewing and updating of material values in MNECH App C • questions of general energy performance nature • Can ICF be exempted from under slab insulation? • How far should under slab insulation go under heated portions? • Long Term (2012-2014) • developing an energy performance target • independent of the Energuide system • for buildings and houses