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Neural Communication. Biological Psychology branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists

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neural communication
Neural Communication
  • Biological Psychology
    • branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
    • some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, orbiopsychologists
  • Phrenology (Franz Gall)
    • Study of the bumps on your head
    • Bumps reveal a person’s abilities and traits
slide2

Phrenology

Popular in the 1800s, debunked after knowledge of

neural communication grew in the 1900s.

neurons and synapses
Neurons and Synapses

Types of Neurons

Sensory

Motor

Interneurons

dendrites
Dendrites
  • Information collectors
  • Receive inputs from neighboring neurons
  • Inputs may number in thousands
  • If enough inputs the cell’s AXON may generate an output
dendritic growth
Dendritic Growth
  • Mature neurons generally can’t divide
  • But new dendrites can grow
  • Provides room for more connections to other neurons
  • New connections are basis for learning
the cell body
The cell body
  • Contains the cell’s Nucleus
  • Round, centrally located structure
  • Contains DNA
  • Controls protein manufacturing
  • Directs metabolism
  • No role in neural signaling
myelin sheath

Myelin Sheath

Myelin sheath
  • White fatty casing on axon
  • Acts as an electrical insulator
  • Not present on all cells
  • When present increases the speed of neural signals down the axon.
slide10
Axon
  • The cell’s output structure
  • One axon per cell, 2 distinct parts
    • tubelike structure branches at end that connect to dendrites of other cells
neural communication2
Neural Communication
  • Action Potential
    • a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
    • generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane
  • Threshold
    • the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
neural communication3

Cell body end

of axon

Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals

Neural Communication
how neurons communicate
How Neurons Communicate
  • Neurons communicate by means of an electrical signal called the Action Potential
  • Action Potentials are based on movements of ions between the outside and inside of the cell
  • When an Action Potential occurs, a molecular message is sent to neighboring neurons
resting potential
Resting Potential
  • At rest, the inside of the cell is at -70 microvolts
  • With inputs to dendrites inside becomes more positive
  • If resting potential rises above threshold, an action potential starts to travel from cell body down the axon
  • Figure shows resting axon being approached by an AP
depolarization ahead of ap
Depolarization Ahead of AP
  • AP opens cell membrane to allow sodium (Na+) in
  • Inside of cell rapidly becomes more positive than outside
  • This depolarization travels down the axon as leading edge of the AP
repolarization follows
Repolarization follows
  • After depolarization potassium (K+) moves out restoring the inside to a negative voltage
  • This is called repolarization
  • The rapid depolarization and repolarization produce a pattern called a spike discharge
finally hyperpolarization
Finally, Hyperpolarization
  • Repolarization leads to a voltage below the resting potential, called hyperpolarization
  • Now neuron cannot produce a new action potential
  • This is the refractory period
ion concentrations
Ion concentrations

Outside of Cell

K+

Na+

Cl-

Cell Membrane in resting state

K+

Na+

Cl-

A-

Inside of Cell

the cell membrane is semi permeable

K+

Na+

Cl-

Outside of Cell

Cell Membrane at rest

Na+

- 70 mv

A-

K+

Cl-

Inside of Cell

Potassium (K+) can pass through to equalize its concentration

Sodium and Chlorine cannot pass through

Result - inside is negative relative to outside

The Cell Membrane is Semi-Permeable
neural communication4
Neural Communication
  • Synapse [SIN-aps]
    • junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
    • tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft
  • Neurotransmitters
    • chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
    • when released by the sending neuron, neuro-transmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse
some drugs work on receptors
Some Drugs Work on Receptors
  • Some drugs are shaped like neurotransmitters
  • Antagonists: fit the receptor but poorly and block the NT
    • e.g., beta blockers
  • Agonists: fit receptor well and act like the NT
    • e.g., nicotine
excitatory and inhibitory messages of neurotransmitters
Excitatory and Inhibitory Messagesof neurotransmitters
  • Excitatory message— increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will activate
  • Inhibitory message— decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will activate.
neurons and synapses1
Neurons and Synapses

Types of Neurons

Sensory

Motor

Interneurons

sensory neurons
Sensory Neurons
  • INPUT Fromsensory organs to the brain and spinal cord

Brain

Drawing shows a somatic neuron

Also called AFFERENT NEURONS

Sensory

Neuron

Spinal

Cord

motor neurons

Brain

Sensory

Neuron

Spinal

Cord

Motor

Neuron

Motor Neurons
  • OUTPUTFrom the brain and spinal cord, to the muscles and glands

Also called

EFFERENT

NEURONS

interneurons

Brain

Sensory

Neuron

Spinal

Cord

Motor

Neuron

Interneurons
  • Interneuronscarry information between other neurons only found in the brain and spinal cord
the nervous system

Nervous

system

Peripheral

Central

(brain and

spinal cord)

Autonomic (controls

self-regulated action of

internal organs and glands)

Skeletal (controls

voluntary movements of

skeletal muscles)

Sympathetic

(arousing)

Parasympathetic

(calming)

The Nervous System