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Review: Neural Communication. Resting Cell Charges. KW 4-10. Depolarization. A Graded Potential. KW 4-11. Hyperpolarization. KW 4-11. A Graded Potential. Phases of the action potential. K&W 4-14. Cell body end of axon. Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals.

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Presentation Transcript
depolarization
Depolarization

A Graded Potential

KW 4-11

hyperpolarization
Hyperpolarization

KW 4-11

A Graded Potential

reversal of charges

Cell body end

of axon

Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals

Reversal of Charges
falling dominos
Falling dominos

K&W p. 131

ion flow
Ion flow

K&W 4-15

properties of action potentials
Properties of Action Potentials
  • All or none: fires completely or not at all
  • Self-propagates: recreates itself
  • Does not degrade: doesn’t lose power
  • Full strength to the end of axon
  • Axon can be any length
naked neurons
Naked Neurons
  • Neurons without myelin sheath
  • Slower
  • Shorter
  • Can’t carry messages long distances
  • What does myelin sheath provide?
saltatory conduction
Saltatory conduction

Saltare = to jump

Action potential skips

from node to node

K&W 4-17

multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis
  • Jacqueline Du Pre
  • 1945-1987
  • MS diagnosis in 1971
  • Hilary and Jackie (1998 movie)
neuronal integration
Neuronal Integration
  • To fire or not to fire, that is the question
  • All or none principle: all or nothing at all
  • Why important?
sherrington
Sherrington
  • Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
  • (1857-1952)
  • Withdrawal reflex
  • Principle of summation
  • Nobel prize in medicine 1932
withdrawal reflex in dogs
Withdrawal Reflex in Dogs
  • One mild pinch between toes  no response
  • Two pinches quickly in same spot  withdraw paw
  • Temporal Summation
  • Temporal = over time
paw reflex part 2
Paw reflex: part 2
  • One mild pinch in one location  no response
  • Two pinches in different locations  withdraw paw
  • Spatial Summation
  • Spatial = over space
temporal one location
Temporal: one location

Postsynaptic cell

motor

Excitatory

Postsynaptic

Potential

Presynaptic cell

sensory

KW 4-19

synapse

temporal epsp
Temporal EPSP

KW 4-19 top

importance of epsp
Importance of EPSP
  • Excite cells
  • Bring about activity
  • Sensation felt
  • Muscle moved
excitation must be balanced
Excitation must be balanced
  • Nervous system can’t run on just excitation
  • Sometimes better not to respond
  • Role on inhibition
  • Calm down the nervous system
role of inhibition
Role of Inhibition
  • Provides break for the nervous system
  • Lowers activity levels
  • Keeps the brain from over-excitation, as in epilepsy
epsp and ipsp
EPSP and IPSP

Inhibitory

Postsynaptic Potential

K&W 4-18

a cell decides to fire
A cell decides to fire

Democracy of Cells

K&W 4-21

emotional arousal

Autonomic nervous system controls

physiological arousal

Sympathetic

division (arousing)

Pupils dilate

Decreases

Perspires

Increases

Accelerates

Inhibits

Secrete stress

hormones

Parasympathetic

division (calming)

Pupils contract

Increases

Dries

Decreases

Slows

Activates

Decreases

secretion of

stress

hormones

EYES

SALIVATION

SKIN

RESPIRATION

HEART

DIGESTION

ADRENAL

GLANDS

Emotional Arousal
control over heart
Control over heart
  • Sympathetic  excites
  • Parasympathetic  inhibits
  • Work together to control heart