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Abrahamic Religions From Abraham Christianity Catholic Orthodox Protestant Islam Sufi Shiite Sunni Judaism Orthodox Confucianism Daoism Shintoism Paganism Animistic Agnosticism Zoroastrianism Dharmic Religions Natural order Hinduism Buddhism Thervada Mayayana Zen Janism Sikhism How to study belief systems
Religions Latin for tie back or reconnect “Theo” – mono, poly or pan “Non-Theo” – mystic (no personal god) Secular is indifferent to religions Spirituality or Sacred
Religions – More than just a belief • How do we define religion • How do we classify religions • What are their characteristics • How do they evolve • Cultural character • Shrines, stupas, cathedrals, Grottos, monasteries • What is their political/social appeal • How do they interact • How do they travel • Conflict • Syncreticism
Terms • Secular • Outside of religion • Asceticism • abstinence from worldly pleasures • Orthodox • Adhering to the accepted and traditional faith • Pious • Strictly adhering to the tenets of a religion • Tenets • teachings
Categorize them • Universal • adherents believe what they think is proper for ALL human kind • have a means of transmission • are not inextricably linked to a nation, ethnicity, or place • are dominant somewhere • Ethnic • Simple • Complex – ethnicity and religion are joined such as Hinduism where you are born into the religion and it is your way of life • Syncretic • Blended together and forms a new religion • Exclusive vs.Non-exclusive • I’m right and you are wrong vs. whatever you want • Islam, Christianity, Judaism vs. Hinduism, Buddhism, • Pantheon • Polytheistic – many gods • Monotheistic – one god • Dualistic – pits equally evil gods against good gods • Schisms and divisions • Sects (Shiite vs. Sunni; Catholic vs. Protestant;Therevada vs. Mahayana)
Universalizing Islam Christianity Buddhism Syncretic Janism Hinduism & Buddhism Sikhism Islam & Hinduism Neoconfucianism Santeria (Lukumi, Regla de Ocha) Vodoun (Voodoo) Macumba (sometimes Quimbanda) and it's branches Umbanda and Candomble Palo Mayombe Ethnic Hinduism Shintoism Judaism Classifying
Tenets or teachings • How are they collected • Books of learning • Books of Law • Who does the teaching and where • Role of Monks & Monasteries • Actual foundation of the religion
How it spreads • Pilgrims • Trade routes • Geographic conduits/crossroads/ obstacles • Stages • Conversion or forced acceptance • Exclusive or dual acceptance • Proselytizing –trying to convert someone to a religion • Mission (latin root is to send off) – duty to conduct such as Hajj • Diaspora
Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam The spread of universal religions from 300-1500 CE
Nature of Religion • Who are the leaders • What kind of background do they have • Degree of aggression • How are they organized • Hierarchy • Religious Institutions and bureaucracies • Connection with political authority
Sacred sites and ceremonies • Meetings/gatherings • What types of structures • How are they connected to these sites geographically • Symbols of the religion
Organization • Secular vs. Sacred • Denomination • Sect • Cult • Orthodoxy • Correct thought • Heresy is violation of the correct thought • Pious or Piety is to adhere or adhering to the tenets and orthodoxy of your religion
Tolerance for other religions • Methods used to keep the true nature of their religion • Wars • Ethnic cleansing • Marriage • How do they convert others • Persecution
Social roles • Gender roles • Exclusion or inclusion of others
Paganism • Gods as personification of nature • all living things have a spirit • Primalreligion perceive and experience the cosmos as a sacred continuum in which nature is a ready and steady manifestation of spiritual realities
Paganism • Continued in areas that had not been evangelized by Christianity and Islam • Shinto - Japanese spiritual presence or nature - worship of Kami (spirits) • (syncretic with Buddhism and some Confucanism) see on chart • Animism - worship of life forces • Totemism - identification of self with various animal symbols • Shamanism - belief in unseen spirit worlds • Druidic - based on Ancient Celtic practices • Wiccan - a creative force exists in the universe • Dreamtime - Aboriginies in Australia • Asatru - (Norse) Asatru- developed in Nordic countries and spread throughout northern Europe. Sweden had Asatru royality until around 1100. Re-established in the late 1800s. Corrupted by Nazi Party and continue use by Neo-Nazis.
African Diasporic (Afro-Caribbean Syncretic) • History/Founder: • The origins of the Afro-caribbean sects (Known variously as Vodoun, Santeria/Lukumi, Candomble, Ifa, Palo Mayombe, etc.) are shrouded in the ancient past. Most were brought to the Americas by Yoruban slaves, (except for Palo, which is Bantu) who blended their tribal beliefs with Catholicism, spiritism, and even native belief. • Varieties of Yoruban descended religions are practiced in almost every country in the world. Most of the examples given in this guide conform mainly to Santeria/Lukumi beliefs, but there is a thread of commonality between all of them. • The most common of the syncretic faiths are: • Santeria (Lukumi, Regla de Ocha) • Vodoun (Voodoo) • Macumba (sometimes Quimbanda) and it's branches Umbanda and Candomble • Palo Mayombe • Current leader/governing body: • No central governing bodies. • Believers are largely autonomous, many consider themselves Catholic.
Basic tenets • The area where these faiths differ most from one another is in sexuality, race, and gender taboos and rank. • In Santeria, women are forbidden from becoming Babalawos, and are sometimes restricted from practicing sacrifice, while in Candomble, women hold the highest positions in the faith, and are much more likely than men to head congregations. • Homosexuality is also treated in very different ways- some sects of Palo, for example, prohibit homosexuals from membership, while most sects of Vodou are inclusive. • Race is most often an issue in Vodou, where it has often been controversial. • Many African sects will not initiate whites, while many Haitian and virtually all American sects are fully inclusive. • Church/temple: • Varies, usually space is consecrated outdoors before a ritual. • Permanent temples or compounds, known as Peristyles in Vodoun, are also found in other branches- in Candomble, they are known as Terreiros. • Scripture: • None, most traditions are oral, and passed from teacher to initiate. Western books of ritual magick such as Goetia, or the seven books of Moses, are indispensable in some sects. • Required observances, dietary restrictions: • Vary widely. Restrictions on dress and food consumption are common during rituals and while preparing for initiations. Many gatherings prohibit immodest dress, or the wearing of certain colors. • For example, when one attends a terreiro, one must never wear red and black (unless, of course, one is attending an invocation of Exu). • Some traditions require ritual sexual abstinence before initiation and on particular days. • Basic teachings and Beliefs: • Beliefs and practices vary widely from sect to sect and tend to be very complex, but all share some or all of the following traits: • Syncretism or associations between traditional Yoruban or Bantu religion and Roman Catholicism, the practice of Animal sacrifice and trance possession, spirit mediumship, sympathetic magic, and elements of medieval Goetic magic and kabbalah.
Hinduism Ayrans Vedic Era Vedas Polytheistic Altman Soul Moksha Liberation (from the cycle of reincarnation) Scriptures Vedas Upanishads Ramayana Mahabharata Bhagavad Gita Dharma Artha Worldly gain Kama Sensual pleasure Buddhism Karma Cause and effect Dharma Right behavior/true path Therevada Mahayana Samsara Suffering Nirvana Liberation Bodhisattvvas Humans who have reached Enlightenment and choose to stay in this world and not go to Nirvana Eightfold Path Zen Lotus sitting and meditation Temples of teaching and monks and monasteries in China, Korea, and Japan and less in South Asia and Southeast Asia Dharmic
Daoism Wise men don't need to prove their point;men who need to prove their point aren't wise.The Master has no possessions.The more he does for others, the happier he is.The more he gives to others, the wealthier he is.The Tao nourishes by not forcing.By not dominating, the Master leads. • Lao zi • Daoism focuses on wu wei or non action • naturalness • (vitality and peace) keeps universe balanced, • Humanism • emptiness is seen as refinement • If work against this emptiness then you upset the balance • The body coordinates with the elements • Three Jewels - compassion, moderation and humility or kindness, simplicity and modesty • Deities • Not really objects of worship • Jade Emperor • Three • Although historic roots appear around 6th century BCE or 4th to 3rd , it is officially recognized in the Tang Dynasty after the 7th Century CE. • I’Ching or Book of Changes or Tao Te Ching • Daozong or Treasury of Tao published during Ming dynasty
How do Universalizing and Ethnic Religions Differ? • Ethnic • Has meaning in particular place only. • Unknown source. • Content focused on place and landscape of origin. • Followers highly clustered. • Holidays based on local climate and agricultural practice. • Universalizing • Appeal to people everywhere • Individual founder (prophet) • Message diffused widely (missionaries) • Followers distributed widely. • Holidays based on events in founder’s life.
Classification • UNIVERSALIZING RELIGION -- one that attempts to appeal to all people, not only those at one location • adapt to almost any society • the religion itself sees no bounds to its eventual expansion over the entire landscape • Christianity, Islam, Buddhism • ETHNIC RELIGION -- religion with a spatially (socially or ethnically) concentrated distribution; principles of such a religion are likely to be based on physical characteristics of a particular location • stong territorial and cultural group identification • born into religion, religion and culture deeply intertwined • Judaism, Indian Hinduism, Japanese Shinto • Tribal or traditional religions • small size, localized culture groups • pre-modern societies • close ties to nature • animism, shamanism
Role of Religion • a symbol of group identity and a cultural rallying point (like language) • both transmitters and identifiers of culture. • can influence the spread of languages to new peoples and areas (Arabic, Latin) • varies in its cultural role (unlike language); dominating to unimportant • a value system that unites and differentiates • religious when involving worship and faith in the sacred and divine • may involve prescribed patterns of behavior; prayer, special rites, obedience to doctrine
Issues • Not a simple thing • “Being Religious” - Pious • Adhering to the tenets and beliefs of ones religion • Having a Pantheon or being monotheistic • If monotheistic details of who/what single deity is and what that deity requires of humans
1500BCE 660 1440 600 563 30CE 622
Major Religions of the WorldRanked by Number of Adherents • Christianity: 2 billion • Islam: 1.3 billion • Hinduism: 900 million • Secular/Nonreligious/Agnostic/Atheist: 850 million • Buddhism: 360 million • Chinese traditional religion: 225 million • African Traditional & Diasporic: 95 million • Sikhism: 23 million • Judaism: 14 million • Jainism: 4 million • Shinto: 4 million
The Roots of Religion • Animism (Shamanism) -the belief that all objects, animals, and beings are “animated” or possess a spirit and a conscious life. Also called shamanism because of the prominence of a Shaman. • Such beliefs are common among hunter-gatherers. • 10% of Africans follow such traditional ethnic religions. • These beliefs are losing ground to Christianity and Islam throughout Africa. Nigerian Shaman
Animism • Retained tribal ethnic religion of people around the world • Today, adherents number at least 100 million • Animists believe certain inanimate objects possess spirits or souls • Spirits live in rocks, rivers, mountain peaks, and heavenly bodies • Each tribe has its own characteristic form of animism • A Shaman — tribal religious figure usually serves as the intermediary between people and the spirits
Spread of Religions • imposed by conquest • adopted by conversion • defended and preserved in the face of surrounding hostility
Cultural and Biological Exchanges Along the Silk Roads • The Spread of Buddhism and Hinduism Insert map on page 257
Religion and Fall of Classical Dynasties • The Fall of the Han Dynasty • Cultural Change in Post-Han China • Sinicization of Nomadic People • attempt to be influenced and assimilated by the Chinese culture (Korea, Japan later) • Popularity of Buddhism • Cultural Change in the Late Roman Empire • Prominence of Christianity • Formation of Institutional Church • Emergence of Pope
POSTCLASSICAL ERA, 500 TO 1000 C.EArabic to Islam Insert Chronology Chart on page 325
The Medinan Caliphate • The Problem of Succession • Abu Bakr (leader of prayers- companion and fourth convert) and Companions • Ali (cousin and adopted son of Muhammad, husband of Fatima, second convert) and Abbas (uncle of Ali and the Prophet) • The Medinan Caliphate(successor/representative) • Abu Bakr (r. 632-634) • ‘Umar (Omar ibn al-Khattab) (r. 634-644) • ‘Uthman (Ummayyad clan) (r. 644-656) • Ali (r. 656-661) • The Sunni-Shiite split
Dar al-Islam • The Expansion of Islam • The Early Caliphs and the Umayyad Dynasty Insert map on page 310
States and Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa • Islamic Kingdoms and Empires • The Indian Ocean Trade and Islamic States in East Africa Insert map on page 436
India and the Indian Ocean Basin • Islamic and Hindu Kingdoms • The Quest for Centralized Imperial Rule
India and the Indian Ocean Basin • Islamic and Hindu Kingdoms • The Introduction of Islam to Northern & Southern India • The conquest of the Sind (711) • Merging of cultures • Sultanate of Delhi (1206) • The Chola Kingdom (850-1267)
India and the Indian Ocean Basin • The Influence of Indian Society in Southeast Asia • The Indianized States of Southeast Asia Insert map on page 372
Hinduism, Buddhism and Janism Dharmic religions
Common Elements • Liberation is the central goal of all three of the Dharmic religions • Wheel of Life
Comparisons • Of the regions most religiously active, India had by far the most activity. • While the Chinese philosophers focused more on how to live and left the hereafter for others to sketch in, the Indians covered both the seen and unseen worlds with their religious thought. • The times were prosperous, so that people could afford to turn their minds to otherworldly ideas. • None of these faiths form in response to something around them that is “wrong” but come into being out of contemplation, study, and realization. • They speak of harmonious relationships, not struggles; they have a tolerant, open message. • The Indian and Chinese ways are just that, “ways.” • They can be lived alongside other ways, or they can stand alone. • No pressure. • They do not exclude or feel a need to convince.
Comparisons • By contrast, the Near Eastern and European religious movements arise out of seeing a “wrong” situation and wanting to correct it. • Moses, Zoroaster, Jesus, Muhammad, and others like them preach a message at odds with their surroundings and contain within their teachings a call to prostelyzation. • They develop out of times presenting a stark contrast and have a message asking people to choose the right side.
Classical Hinduism • Focused on figuring out ways to break the continual cycle of rebirth, samsara • The particulars of an individual’s wanderings in samsara are determined by karma • Brahman: perfection, ultimate reality; eternal life force; only thing that really exists; “…is in all things, and is all things, is above all things.” All gods are manifestations (forms) of Brahman. • Maya: “magical spell”—a part of Brahman; the world we experience is an illusion (see, hear, feel, taste, smell, joy, pain: all maya)
Hinduism • Hinduism has splintered into diverse religious, some regarded as separate religions • Jainism — ancient outgrowth, claiming perhaps 5 million adherents • Traces its roots back over twenty-five centuries • Reject Hindu scriptures, rituals, and priesthood • Share Hindu belief in ahinisa and reincarnation • Adhere to a stern asceticism • Sikhism — arose in the 1500s, in an attempt to unify Hinduism and Islam • Centered in the Punjab state of northwestern India • Has about 19 million followers • Sikhs practice monotheism and have their own holy book, the Adi Granth
Buddhism • Derived from Hinduism began 25 centuries ago • Reform movement grounded in the teaching of Prince Siddhartha — the Buddha • He promoted the four “noble truths” • Life is full of suffering • Desire is the cause of this suffering • Cessation of suffering comes with the quelling of desire • An “eight-fold path” of proper personal conduct and meditation permits the individual to overcome desire • Nirvana — reached when one has achieved a state of escape and peace, which is attained by very few
Buddhism • Today the most widespread religion in Asia • Dominates a culture region from Sri Lanka to Japan and from Mongolia to Vietnam • Proselytes religion • Formed composite faiths as it fused with ethnic faiths especially in China and Japan • Fused with Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism • Southern Buddhism dominant in Sri Lanka and mainland Southeast Asia retains greatest similarity to original form • Special variation known as Lamaism prevails in Tibet and Mongolia